CBSE Class 12 Knowledge Of Traditions And Practices Of India Question Paper 2019. Students can download the last year board exams question papers using the link below. Free download of examination question papers with solutions. Last 10 year question papers should be practised to get better marks in examinations.
1. (a) Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
Mauryan architecture, which is inspired by Buddhist thought, is illustrated by the stūpas at Sanchi, the monolithic rail at Sarnath and the pillars of Bodh Gaya. Śunga architecture added decorations of stone vedikas (railings) and gateways surrounding the stūpa. Examples of these monuments are the stūpas at Sanchi (near Bhopal), Bharhut (Madhya Pradesh), and Amaravati on the Krishna River. At Bharhut the gateways are imitations in stone of the wooden portals of early Indian towns. Most prominent in the embellishment of the vedikas are the carvings of Yaksas and Yakasīs (supernatural beings).
The great stūpa at Sanchi, whose foundation was originally laid by Aśoka, was enlarged under the patronage of the Andhra Dynasty. Architecture under the Kusānas produced relief friezes carved in dark schist and portrayed figures in classical poses with flowing Hellenistic draperies; it also made use of ivory and imported glass. The stūpa in Gandhara marks the gradual elaboration of the primitive types known at Sanchi and Bharhut.
In the Gupta age, the tradition of excavating cave temples and monolithic shrines evolved into the construction of brick and stone temples. This was due to two reasons. One reason was that while the architects and sculptors could create a cave temple only where boulders or hills were available, a structural stone temple could be created at any chosen site by baking bricks or quarrying and transporting stones. Secondly, there was more scope for architectural and sculptural innovation and experimentation while constructing a temple.
(i) What were stūpas made up of originally ?
(ii) List the characteristics of Kusāna architecture.
(iii) Give the examples of Mauryan architecture.
(iv) What led to evolution of monolithic shrines into the construction of stone temples ?
(v) How were stūpas in Sunga architecture different from the ones in Mauryan architecture ?
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