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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Examination Structure
I. Reproduction (Periods 35)
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
II. Genetics and Evolution (Periods 45)
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle;Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
III Biology and Human Welfare (Periods 35)
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
IV Biotechnology and Its Applications (Periods 30)
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.
V Ecology and environment (Periods 35)
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions–mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Syllabus and Examination structure (Total Periods = 60)
List of Experiments
- Study pollen germination on a slide.
- Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
- Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
- Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
- Study of plant population density by quadrate method.
- Study of plant population frequency by quadrate method.
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
- Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
- Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
- Identification of stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).
- Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides.
- T.S. of blastula through permanent slides.
- Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
- Prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
- Exercise on controlled pollination – Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
- Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
- Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological
Latest NCERT & CBSE News
Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning
CBSE Board has decided to introduce Art-Integrated Project work for classes I to X to promote Art-Integrated Learning in schools to make teaching learning Competency-Based and joyful. As part of this, at least one Art-Integrated Project in each subject shall be taken...
As per the announcement recently released by the Ministry of Home Affairs, at least 3000 CBSE affiliated selected as evaluation centers for board exam answer sheets will be allowed to open for the limited purpose of evaluation purposes only. The answer sheets for Board...
Procedure for correction in Name and Date of Birth in CBSE records Name Change: Applications regarding changes in name or surname of candidates will be considered provided the changes have been admitted by the Court of law and notified in the Government Gazette before...
The CBSE Board Exams have been postponed twice this year! New Delhi: The Education Ministry has urged the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to reinstitute the board exams only for the main subjects. As per the official statement the Board will not conduct...
In enhancing the students studying part, the Government is planning to introduce one standard one channel plan. The lockdown in India has adversely collapsed all the operations including schools, colleges, and workplaces with unanticipated setbacks. On behalf of the...
Critical notice issued by CBSE relating to Boards and other classes