CBSE class 12 chemistry question papers and sample papers with solutions, NCERT solutions and books, formulas sheets and other useful study material covering topics such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and ethers, haloalkanes and haloarenes, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life etc
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Latest Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry
THEORY - Total Periods 180
Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces :molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids ,number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals ,conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors .
Unit II : Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law , elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Vant Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis :homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8 )
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements (Periods 14)
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen ( structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine ,halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Period 14)
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthenoids .
Unit IX Coordination Compounds (Period 12)
Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; isomerism (structural and stereo)importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (Periods 12)
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Period 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
Proteins - Elementary idea of a - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones –Elementary idea (excluding structure).
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life (Periods 8)
- Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Cbse Class 12 Chemistry Practicals Syllabus and examination structure Total Periods 60
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used.
A. Surface Chemistry (Periods 5)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol : starch , egg albumin and gum.
Lyophobic sol : aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenious sulphide. (b) Dialysis of sol prepared in (a) above.
(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agent in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid .
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentrations of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate (KIO3) and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C. Thermochemistry (Periods 4)
Any one of the following experiments :
(a) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
(b) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH)
(c) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.
D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+//Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO or ZnSO ) at room temperature.
E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
(a) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
(b) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having wide difference in R values to be provided).
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
(a) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. (b) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 2)
Preparation of any one of the following compounds: (a) Acetanilide
(b) Di-benzal acetone
(d) Aniline yellow or 2 - Napththol aniline dye
H. Test for the Functional Groups Present in Organic Compounds (Periods 5)
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.
I. Characteristic Tests of Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins in Pure Samples and Their
Detection in Given Food Stuffs. (Period 4)
J. Determination of Concentration/Molarity of KMnO4 Solution by Titrating it against a Standard Solution of – (Periods 10)
(i) Oxalic acid
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative Analysis (Periods 16)
- Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cations - Pb2+ ,Cu 2+ , As3+ ,Al3+ ,Fe3+ , Mn 2+ ,Ni2+ ,Zn 2+ ,Co2+ ,Ca 2+ ,Sr 2+ ,Ba 2+ ,Mg2+ ,NH 4+
Anions - CO2- ,S2- ,SO2- ,SO2- ,NO- ,NO- ,Cl- ,Br- ,I- ,PO3- ,C O2- ,CH COO-
(Note : Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested projects
- Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
- Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
- Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
- Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.)
- Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
- Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice etc.
- Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
- Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. In addition models and exhibits for exhibition ,depicting basic principles and application in daily life may also be included .
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