CBSE Class 12 Social Science The Age of Industrialization Assignment

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The Age Of Industrialization Class 12 Social Science Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Social Science students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for The Age Of Industrialization in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Social Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Social Science Assignment for The Age Of Industrialization

Short Answers Type Questions

Q.1: - What was the result of First World War on Indian industries?

Ans.:- First World War gave a great boost to the Indian Industries because of the following reasons-

1. The British mills became busy with the production of War materials so all its exports to India virtually stopped.

 2. Suddenly Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market.

3. The Indian factories were called upon to supply various war related material like- Jute bags, clothes for uniforms, tents and leather boots for the forces and so on.

 

Q.2: - Who was a jobber? Explain his functions.

Ans.:- Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often the jobber was an old and trusted worker.

1. He got people from his village ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in time of crisis.

2. Jobbers became persons with authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for the favor he did and started controlling the lives of workers.

 

Q.3: - What were the problems of Indians weavers at the early 19th century?

Ans.:- 1. Shortage of raw material – as raw cotton exports from India increased the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.

2. Clashes with Gomasthas- the Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So the weavers clashed with them.

3. System of Advances- The Britishers started the system of advances to regularizes the supply. The weavers eagerly took the advances in a hope to earn more but they failed to do so. They even started loosing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.

 

Q.4: - What does the picture indicate on the famous book ‘Dawn of the century’?

Ans.:-1. There is an angle of progress, bearing the flag of the new century and is gently perched on a wheel with wings symbolizing time.

2. The fight is taking into the future.

3. Floating about behind her are the sign of progress- Railway, Camera, Machines, Printing press and factory.

 

Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1: - Explain the main features of Proto – Industrialization?

Ans.:- Main features of Proto Industrialization-

1. Production was not based on factories.

2. Large scale home based production for international market. 

3. Merchants move to country side and supplied money for artisans to produced for international market.

4. It provided alternative source of income.

5. Income from pro-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from.

6. Helped in fuller use of their family labour resources.

7. Close relationship.

 

Q.2: - How did the British market expanded their goods in India?

Ans.:- 1. Advertisement of product – Advertisement make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. During the industrial age, advertisements have played a major role in expanding the market for products.

2. Putting labels on the cloths bundles – The labels was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on a label. They would feel confident about buying the cloths.

3. Images of Indian Gods gave approval to the goods being sold. Images of Krishna and Saraswati was intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian People.

 4. Printing Calendars to popularizes their products unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in the tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and in middle class houses.

 

Q.3: - ‘The Industrial Revolution was a mixed Blessing.’ Explain?

Ans.:- Blessing of the Industrial Revolution –

1. Production by machines has met the growing need of the growing population of the world.

2. Only machines have made it possible for the mankind to meet the primary necessities of food, cloths and shelter

 3. Machines have relieved man of the drudgery of tiring and unpleasant jobs.

 4. Machines have brought more leisure. 

Harmful effects of Industrial Revolution-

1. The industrial Revolution shattered the rural life by turning the farmers into landless labourers.

2. Rural unemployment forced the unemployed farmers to migrate to cities in search of jobs

3. The cities became overcrowded and many problems of insanitation and housing arose.

4. The industrial Revolution gave birth to imperialism

 

Q.4: - Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers?

Ans.:- 1. No chance of bargaining – The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.

2. Leasing of land – most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving.

3. Dependency for food on others – most of the weavers after loosing their land became dependent on other for the food supplies.

4. Clashes with Gomasthas – Gomasthas acted arrogantly, marched into villages with police and punished weavers for delay in supply.

 

Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - Guilds were associations of-
(a) Industrialization
(b) Exporters
(c) Traders
(d) Producers
 
Q.2: - Which of the following best defines a Jobber?
(a) Employed by industrialists to get new recruits
(b) Old trusted worker
(c) Person of authority and power
(d) Controlled lives of workers
 
Q.3: - First country to undergo industrial revolution is-
(a) Japan
(b) Britain
(c) Germany
(d) France
 
Q.4: - 18th Century India witnessed the decline of which port town?
(a) Surat
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) Madras
 
Q.5: - The paid servants of the East India Company were
(a) Seth
(b) Mamlatdar
(c) Gomastha
(d) Lambardar
 
Q.6: - Who devised the Spinning Jenny?
(a) Samuel Luck
(b) Richard Arkwright
(c) James Hargreaves
(d) James Watt.
 
Q.7: - When was the first cotton mill set up in India in?
(a) 1814
(b) 1824
(c) 1854
(d) 1864
 
Q.8: - In India, the first cotton mill was set up in-
(a) Madras
(b) Bombay
(c) Kanpur
(d) Surat
 
Q.9: - What was the fly shuttle used for-
(a) Washing
(b) Weaving
(c) Drying
(d) Sowing
 
Q.10:- Who invented the steam engine-
(a) James Watt
(b) New Camen
(c) Richard Arkwright
(d) None of the above
 
Answer Key 
1. ( d ) 2. ( a ) 3. ( b ) 4. ( a ) 5. ( c ) 6. ( c ) 7. ( c )
8. ( b ) 9. ( b ) 10. ( a )
 
 
More Questions and Answers for NCERT Class 10 The Age of Industrialization....

1. Why was a jobber employed? How did a jobber misuse his position and power? Explain. 

Answer :. Jobber was employed to get new recruits for the factories or industrialists. The jobber misused his position and power in the following ways: (i) Initially Jobbers lured people from his village ensuring them jobs. He also helped them settle in the city and lent them money in the times of crisis. (ii) Gradually, Jobbers got position and power. (iii) They started demanding money and gifts for all the favours. (iv) They also started to control the lives of the workers. (v) Jobbers got people from his own village and restricted entries of others in the mills.

 

2. Explain with examples the importance of advertisement in the marketing of the goods.

Answer : (i) Advertisement : Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding; were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets, and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. (ii) Labelling : Labelling was another method used by the producers to expand their market. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they cut labels on the cloth bundles. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the labels, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth. But labels did not only carry words and texts. They also carried images, and were very often beautifully illustrated. (iii) Calendars : By the nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people, who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments. Those, who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract the consumers. (iv) Images of important personages : Along with the images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned. (v) Advertisement by Indian producers : Indian manufacturers were also using the same tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy products that Indians produce. Finally, advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.

 

3. Explain giving four reasons why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19th century. 4.4 Factories Come Up VSA

Answer : Hand Labour was preferred over machines in Victorian England because : (a) There was less space for installing machines. (b) Women labourers were not trained to operate machines.(c) Manual labour was cheaper than machines as large number of migrant labor had come to cities. (d) The Queen had banned the use of machines in factories to create job opportunities for the poor. (e) Machines often broke down and their repair was expensive. (f) In seasonal industries, where production fluctuated with the seasons, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed. (g) The variety of products required in the market could not be produced by the machines available at that time. In mid-nineteenth century, Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes, these required human skill, and not mechanical technology.

 

4. Explain the role played by advertisements in creating new consumers for the British products.

Answer : (i) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. (ii) They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. (iii) If we look back into history since the very beginning of the industrial age, advertisements have played a very vital role in expanding the markets for products and in shaping a new consumer culture.

 

5. Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move to countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth century?

Answer :. Merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production in the towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful and prevented the entry of merchants.

 

6. Explain any three reasons for the clashes between the weavers and the gomasthas. 

Answer :There were frequent clashes between Gomasthas and weavers in the village because of the following reasons : (i) Earlier supply merchants often belonged to the same villages and had a close relationship with the weavers. (ii) The company's appointed Gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the villagers. (iii) They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons and punished weavers for delays. (iv) The weavers could no longer bargain for prices or sell to other buyers in place or the British who paid them low wages. (v) In many places, Carnatic (Karnataka) and Bengal weavers deserted the village, migrated or revolted along with the village traders.

 

7. Which one of the following alternatives is associated with Gomasthas? (a) Traders (b) Landlords (c) Unpaid servants (d) Paid supervisors

Answer :(d) Paid supervisors

 

8. How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of workers in Britain?

Answer :. Abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of the workers in Britain in following ways: (i) The work available in most of the industries were seasonal. So workers had long period without work. Many returned to the countryside. But most of them looked for odd jobs. (ii) Most of the workers had to wait for weeks or more to get job. They had to spend nights under bridges or in night shelters. (iii) Wages had increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. When prices rose sharply during the prolonged Napoleonic war, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.

 

9. The Spinning Jenny was devised by _____ (a) T.E.. Nicholson (b) James Hargreaves (c) William Bell Scot (d) Will Thome

Answer :: (b) James Hargreaves 

10. Explain any three methods used by producers of Manchester to expand their market in the 19th century.


Answer : (i) Advertisement : Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding; were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets, and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. (ii) Labelling : Labelling was another method used by the producers to expand their market. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they cut labels on the cloth bundles. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the labels, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth. But labels did not only carry words and texts. They also carried images, and were very often beautifully illustrated. (iii) Calendars : By the nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people, who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments. Those, who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract the consumers. (iv) Images of important personages : Along with the images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned. (v) Advertisement by Indian producers : Indian manufacturers were also using the same tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy products that Indians produce. Finally, advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.

 

11. What was the condition of Indian industries before the First World War? How did it change after the First World War?

Answer : Till the First World War, industrial growth in India was slow. The Indian manufactured goods had to compete with British imports. The war created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, British imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills has a vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged, India factories were called upon to supply war needs: Jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed. After the war, British goods could never recapture its old position in the Indian market.

 

12. Describe the conditions of workers in Europe after the Industrial Revolution.

Answer :Large number of people came to cities looking for jobs. The wages for women and children were almost half that of men. Most people worked for between 12 to 16 hours a day six days a week and without any paid holidays. The working conditions were really poor. (i) Finding a job largely depended on existing network of friendship and kin relations. People without jobs often had to spend nights on bridges or in night shelters. Some private individuals hadset up Night Refuges. The Law authorities maintained Casual Wards for such people. (ii) People employed in seasonal jobs often moved to villages or stayed in towns looking for odd jobs. During the periods of economic slump, the unemployment increased anything between 35 and 75%. This reduced the wages as workers were in surplus. (iii) Workers often turned hostile to new technology because of fear of unemployment. For example; when Spinning Jenny was introduced, women began to attack the new machines because they survived on hand spinning (iv) Factories were dusty, dirty and dark – the only light source was sunlight that came in through a few windows. Because the machines ran on steam from fires, there was smoke everywhere. Many people ended up with eye problems and lung diseases. There was no safety norm and accidents happened frequently. (v) After the 1840s, because of more construction activity there was an increase in employment. The number of workers in the transport industries doubled in the 1840s, and doubled again in the subsequent 30 years.

 

13. Why were the British industrialists not keen to introduce modern machinery in the nineteenth century? Explain any five reasons.

Answer : The British industrialists did not wish to introduce modern machinery because : (i) Seasonal demand of laboures in industries. (ii) Range of products could be produced only with handlooms. (iii) For certain products only human skill was required. (iv) Upper class society preferred things produced by hands. (v) Handmade products symbolised refinement or class.

 

14. The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples.

Answer :24. After establishing its political power, the British East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system that would eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk goods. These measures ultimately led to the ruining of Indian weavers. The measures adopted were as follows : (i) The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers, connected with cloth trade and establish a direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called Gomastha to supervise the weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth. (ii) The company weavers were prevented from selling to other buyers. The weavers were tied to the company by a system of advance. Loans were given to the weavers for production and they had to hand over the finished products to the Gomasthas. (iii) The price that the weavers received was low, but they were left with no choice but to sell their goods to the British because the loans tied them to the British. This was a situation of helplessness and desperation that made them to revolt against the British. They quit their profession and migrated to other places.

 

15. Describe the life of the workers in Victorian Britain. 4.5 The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth VSA 

Answer ::In 19th century Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants came to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on their existing network of friendship and kin relations. If someone had a relative or friend in a factory, he could easily get a job. But not everyone had social connections. The following points state that the life of workers at that time was pathetic: (i) After the busy season was over, labourers looked for odd jobs which till the mid-19th century were difficult to find. (ii) Though, the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, the increase was nullified by an increase in prices of commodities. (iii) The income of workers depended not on the wage rate alone, it also depended on the number of days of their work. (iv) Till the mid-19th century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor. (v) Poor workers were forced to live in slums. (vi) Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology. When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woolen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking new machines.

 

16. The upper classes, during Victorian period, preferred things produced by hands because: Give the reasons.

Answer : The upper classes, during Victorian period preferred things produced by hands because: (i) They symbolised refinement and class. (ii) They were better finished. (iii) They were individually produced and carefully designed.

 

17. How did the handloom industry collapse in India under the British rule? Explain.

Answer :(i) Factories in Manchester started producing cotton textiles for the domestic market. (ii) The government put more import duties on the textile coming from India to encourage the local industries. As a result, the Indian weavers lost their overseas market. (iii) The British Government in India also levied more taxes on the handloom units which made the Indian textiles costlier in Indian markets when compared to the Manchester textiles. (iv) The Civil War in USA forced the British to buy more raw cotton from India for their Manchester textile industries. This created an acute shortage of raw material for the weavers and the Indian handloom industry collapsed.

 

18. Describe the technique which were adopted by the Manchester industrialists to sell their goods in India.

Answer : (i) Advertisement : Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding; were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets, and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. (ii) Labelling : Labelling was another method used by the producers to expand their market. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they cut labels on the cloth bundles. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the labels, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth. But labels did not only carry words and texts. They also carried images, and were very often beautifully illustrated. (iii) Calendars : By the nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people, who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments. Those, who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract the consumers. (iv) Images of important personages : Along with the images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned. (v) Advertisement by Indian producers : Indian manufacturers were also using the same tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy products that Indians produce. Finally, advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.

 

19. How did the Indian industries develop in the 19th and 20th centuries? Explain.

Answer : (i) The early industrialists avoided a direct competition with the British factories. (ii) The cotton mills started to produce coarse cotton yarn and this was exported to China. (iii) As Swadeshi Movement gathered momentum, industrialist pressurized the government to increase tariff protection. (iv) During the First World War, the British Government called upon the Indian mills to produce goods such as jute bags, boots, etc., for the British Army. (v) As the war prolonged, England could not capture the Indian markets.

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