CBSE Class 12 Social Science Popular Struggles and Movements Assignment

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Popular Struggles And Movements Class 12 Social Science Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Social Science students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Popular Struggles And Movements in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Social Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Social Science Assignment for Popular Struggles And Movements

MCQs

Question : What did Nepal become a constitutional monarchy?
 (a) In 1960   (b) In 1970   (c) In 1980   (d) In 1990
Answer : D

Question : What was the aim of the extraordinary movement Nepal witnessed in 2006?
(a) Restoring Democracy   (b) Abolishing untouchability
(c) Bringing down military rule   (d) Division of Nepal
Answer : A

Question : Who become the new Prime Minister of Nepal in 2006?
(a) Beni Prasad   (b) Girija Prasad Koirala   (c) Gyanendra   (d) Himmat Prasad Koirala
Answer : B

Question : Which organization was setup by the Nepalese people to restore democracy in Nepal?
(a) The Dual Alliance   (b) The Tripple Alliance   (c) The Nepal Congress   (d) The Seven Party Alliance
Answer : D

Question : On which day was the king of Nepal (King Gyanendra) forced to concede all the demands of SPA?
(a) On June 1, 2001   (b) On April 24, 2006   (c) On July 24, 2006   (d) On June 1, 2007
Answer : B

Question : What was the Bolivian protest called?
(a) Bolivian war   (b) Bolivia’s Water war   (c) Water for Bolivia   (d) Bolivian crisis
Answer : B

Question : To which of the following countries does FEDECOR belong?
(a) Nepal   (b) Northern Ireland   (c) Belgium   (d) Bolivia
Answer : D

Question : Which political party came to power in Bolivia in 2006?
(a) Democratic Party   (b) Socialist Party   (c) Liberal Party   (d) Conservative Party
Answer : A

Question : Which of the following is an example of moments growing into political parties?
(a) NAPM   (b) FEDECOR   (c) BAMCEF   (d) Assam Gana Parishad
Answer : D

Question : Which of the following can be classified as a type of public interest group?
(a) Trade unions   (b) FEDECOR   (c) Doctors   (d) Teachers
Answer : B

Question : When was the king Birendra of Nepal Killed?
(a) In 1999   (b) In 2000   (c) In 2001   (d) In 2002
Answer : C

Question : How did people protest against the “Kittiko – Hochchiko” movements?
(a) By planting more eucalyptus trees.   (b) By plucking more trees
(c) By plucking eucalyptus trees and planting other saplings
(d) By plucking all eucalypts trees on the 30,000 hectare piece of land
Answer : C

Question : Name the type of government adopted in Nepal in the year 1990.
(a) Monarchy
(b) Dictatorship
(c) Colonial rule
(d) Democracy.
Answer : D



Very Short Answer Type Questions

 

Question : What is the principal concern of the promotional groups?
Answer : Their principal concern is to promote collective rather than selective good. 


Question : Name one movement that gave birth to a political party. What is the name of this party?
Answer : The Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ It led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.


Question :  What are public interest groups? How do they look after the public interests?
Answer : A public interest group is a group that promotes the interests of the people of the society. There interests can be of a particular section of the society or of the entire society in general. Their activities benefit the entire society and not just a particular section of the society. 


Question : Which financial agency pressurised the government of Bolivia to give an MNC, control over water supply arrangements in the city of Cochabamba?
Answer : The World Bank pressurised the government of Bolivia to give an MNC, control over water supply arrangements in the city of Cochabamba.


Question : Name some people’s movement which have become very popular.
Answer : Narmada Bachao Andolan, movement for right to information. Anti-liquor movement, women’s movement, environmental movement.


Question : Water did the government of Bolivia do then?
Answer : It sold the rights of water supply for the city of Cochabamba to a multinational company.


Question : ‘A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress.’ Analyse the statement. 
Answer :  A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress. Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher level than before.
 

Question : A country holds election to elect peoples representatives to form the government but the elections are not fair.
Identify the kind of challenge faced by the people in such a country. 
Answer :  People face the challenge of expansion of democracy.
 

Short Answer Type Questions


Question :  When did Nepal win democracy? State two features of the democratic Nepal after attaining democracy.
Answer : Nepal won the democracy in 1990.
Two Features:-
1. The King formally remained the head of the state; the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives.
2. King Birendra who had accepted this transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001
 
Question :  What were the results of the popular struggle of Nepal?
Answer :
1. The King was forced to concede all the thru demands of the protesters.
2. The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new P.M. of the interim government.
3. The restored parliament met and passed laws taking away most of the power of the king.
 
Question :  Mention any three similarities between the movements in Nepal and Bolivia.
Answer :  
1. Both these are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles.
2. In both cases, the struggle involves mass mobilizations public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.
3. Both instances involved the critical role of political organization.
 

Question : In which two ways, the public interest groups achieve their arms?
Answer :
(i) They can raise slogans.
(ii) They can disrupt the public.

 

Question : Write the composition of the organization which protested against water privatization in Bolivia?
Answer :
1. The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by FEDECOR.
2. This organization comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
3. They were supported by a federation of farmers who relied on irrigation, middle class students, confederation of factory workers, unions and the city’s growing population of the homeless street children.
 
Question : What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
Answer :
1. A pressure group is an organized or an unorganized body that seeks to promote its interests while a political party seeks to attain political power by contesting elections.
2. Pressure groups are formed by the people of common interests, occupations and opinions while olitical parties are forced on the basic of ideology and vision.
3. A pressure group represents their own single interests while political parties represents various interests.
 
Question :  What are sectional interest groups? How do they watch their interests?
Answer :   Sectional interest groups refer to the interest groups that seek to promote the interest of a particular section or a group of society. Trade unions, business associations and professional bodies (lawyers, doctors, teachers etc.) are some examples of sectional interest groups—
 
 
Question :  Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a domestic govt.?
Answer :
1. Pressure groups performs a useful role in countering the under influence of rich and powerful people on the govt.
2. Pressure groups remind the govt. of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
3. Different pressure groups put pressure on the govt. for making policies in their favor and against. This lets the govt. know about what different sections of population want.
 
Question : Elaborate the challenge of expansion of democracy.
Give an example. 
or
“Most of the established democracies are facing the challenge of expansion.” Support the statement with examples. [
or
Explain the ‘Challenge of Expansion’ to democracy.
Answer :  Most of the established democracies face the Challenge of Expansion:
a. Citizens have great expectations from the government.
b. Government tries its best for the upliftment of the society.
c. Ensuring greater power to the local government.
d. Extension of federal principles to all the units of the federation including women and minority groups.
 
Question : How would you like to expand the definition of democracy? Explain. 
Answer :  Definition of democracy shall be expanded by adding following features:
a. The government elected by the people must take all the decisions.
b. Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
c. The choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis.
d. The exercise of this choice must lead to a government limited by the basic rules of the constitution and citizen’s rights.
 
Question : How are the challenges to democracy linked to the possibility of political reforms? Explain.
Answer :   Each challenge in democracy is linked to the possibility of reforms. All the countries do not have same challenges.
a. Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices.
b. Democratic reforms are to be carried out by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
c. Political participation by ordinary citizen should be there.
d. Democratic movements, citizen’s organization and media should play an important role.
e. Empowerment of people through laws, e.g., RTI.
 
Question : What type of financial reforms should be brought to strengthen democracy and why?
Answer :
a. The financial accounts of every political party should be made public. These accounts should be made public. These accounts should be examined by government auditors.
b. There should be state funding of elections.
c. Citizen should be encouraged to give more donations to parties and to political workers such donations should be exempted from income tax.
 
Question : What are the features of a good democracy?
Answer :  Features of a good democracy are:
a. Rulers are elected by the people to take all decisions.
b. Elections give an opportunity and choice to the people.
c. Democracy ensures that rights are given to the citizen.
 
Question : Explain the challenges faced by countries which do not have a democratic form of government.
Answer :
a. These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.
b. They also face the challenge of bringing down the existing non-democratic regime and keeping the military away from controlling the government.
c. Such countries have to make great efforts to establish a sovereign and functional state.
 
Question : What is a democratic reform. Mention a few broad guidelines for devising political reforms in India.
Answer :  All suggestions or proposals about overcoming various challenges to democracy are called democratic reform or political reform.
Broad guidelines for devising political reforms in India are:
a. Legal Ways of reforming politics.
b. The Right to Information Act.
c. Reforms through political practice,
d. Implementation reforms. 
 
 

Long Answer Type Questions


 
Question :  Write in brief about the Nepal’s second movement for democracy in Nepal
Answer :
1. The Nepal movement took place in April 2006 which was aimed at restoring democracy.
2. The Nepalese king Birendra had accepted massacre of the royal family in 2001.
3. The new king Gyanendra refused to accept the democratic rule.
4. In February 2005 the king dismissed the P.M. and devolved the popularity elected parliament.
5. In against of the dismissed of P.M. all the major parties in the parliament formed SPA and called for a fear days strike in Katmandu.
6. This strike turned into an indefinite strike after the involvement of Maoist with 3 to 5 lakh people.
7. On 24th April 2006, the king was forced to concede the demand of people. The SPA chore Girija Prasad Koirala as the new P.M. of the interim govt.
 
Question : Is the influence of pressure groups and movements healthy in a democracy?
Answer :  Yes, putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as every one gets this opportunity because –
1. A democracy must look after the interest of all not just one section.
2. These groups help the people of a particular section to voice their interest a demands.
3. Two pressure groups of different ideology helps in maintaining a balance between the demands of various groups in the society.
4. Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy in the world. Thus some people may criticized the role of these groups as these groups promote the interest of their sections and not accountable to the people in general.
 
Question : Discuss the brief the popular struggle of Bolivia
Answer :
1. Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America the World Bank pressurized the government to give up its control of municipal water supply.
2. The govt. sold these tights for the city of Cochabamba to a MNC.
3. The MNC immediately increased the price of water by four times.
4. Many people received water bills of Rs- 1000 where as their average monthly income was Rs. 5000/ month.
5. In January 2000 a new alliance of labor, human rights and community leaders organized a successful Our days general strike in the city and the govt. agreed to negotiate. Yet nothing happened.
6. The agitation started again in February but the police restored to brutal repression.
7. Another strike followed in April and the govt. imposed martial law.
8. But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC and the govt. to concede to all the demands of the protesters.
9. Finally the contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.
 
Question : What are the characteristics of pressure groups.
Answer :
1. Universal Character
2. Organized body.
3. Having influence on the public policies.
4. Lack of responsibility.
5. Non partism
6. Extra constitutional organization.  


Question : Describe the ‘second popular movement for democracy’ of Nepal.
Answer :
 (i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy.
(ii) In February 2005, the king of Nepal dismissed the then prime minister and dissolved the popularly elected parliament.
(iii) The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king.
(iv) All the political parties in the Parliament formed an alliance—Seven Party Alliance (SPA)—and called for four day strike in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal.
(v) The protests turned into indefinite strike in which Maoist and various organisations also joined hands.
(vi) People defied curfew and came to streets. More than lakhs of people gathered almost every day to demand restoration of democracy.
(vii) On 21 April, they served an ultimatum to the king and the leaders of the movement rejected the half-hearted concessions given by the king and stuck to their demand for restoration of parliament, power to all party government and a new constituent assembly.
(viii) 24th April 2006 was the last day of the ultimatum; the king was forced to grant all the demands. 

Question : “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement.
Answer :  Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April, 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. Nepal had won democracy in 1990. Although the king formally remained the head of the state, the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives. After the mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001, King Gyanendra, the new King of Nepal, showed his unwillingness to accept democratic rule. In February 2005, he dissolved the popularly elected parliament. This caused a movement in April 2006 to regain control over the government from the King. All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and started protest. They served an ultimatum to the King, with their demands. On 24 April 2006, the last day of the ultimatum, the King was forced to concede all the three demands. The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim government. The restored parliament passed laws taking away most of the powers of the King. In this way, the struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world. 

Question : Name the two types of movement groups and give one example of each.
Answer :  There are two types of movement groups:
1. Specific movements/short term movements: They are formed to achieve single objective. They work in limited time frame and thus have usually short active life.
Examples:
(i) The Nepalese movement for democracy arose with specific objective of reversing the king’s order that led to suspension of democracy.
(ii) In India, Narmada Bachao Andolan is also an example of this. This movement started with a specific issue of people displaced by the creation of Sardar Sarovar dam on the river Narmada. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed. Gradually it became a wider movement that questioned all such big dams.
2. General/Generic movements/long term movements: These movements come into existence to achieve a broad goal in the long run. These involve more than one issues. There is no single organisation that controls or guides such movements.
Examples: The Environmental movement and women’s movement.

Question : Compare and contrast the popular struggles of Nepal and Bolivia.
Answer : Similarities
(i) The popular struggles of Nepal and Bolivia are instances of political conflicts led to the popular struggles. In both cases the struggle involved mass mobilisation.
(ii) Both instances involved critical role of political organisations.
Differences
(i) The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy while in Bolivia the struggle involved claims on an elected democratic government.
(ii) In Bolivia, struggle was about one specific policy, while struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics.
(iii) Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.

 
Question : When was the ’Right to Information Act’ implemented? How does it act as the watch-dog of democracy? Explain.
Answer :  ‘The Right to Information Act’ was implemented in 2005.
a. It empowers the people to find out what is happening in government.
b. It acts as the watchdogs of democracy.
c. It helps to control corruption and supplements the existing laws that banned corruption and imposed strict penalties.
d. It gives political actors incentives to do good.
 
Question : What are the guidelines to be kept in mind while adopting political reforms? 
Answer : The guidelines to be kept in mind while adopting political reforms also include:
a. Involving political parties, political activists and people in bringing about reforms rather than imposing reforms through laws.
b. Legal measures should be positive, more like incentives.
c. Improving the quality of political practices by increasing people’s participation.
d. Laws being considered may meet with resistance in the legislatures and by political parties.
So, the best way to bring about the change is through democratic movements and media.
 
Question : How can the countries facing the foundational challenge of making a transition to democracy set-up a democratic government? Suggest any three measures.
or
What is a ‘challenge’? Explain the three major challenges before the countries of the work regarding democracy. 
or
“The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one form or another”. Support the statement with three suitable arguments. How can democracy be reformed and deepened? Suggest any three guidelines.
Answer :  A ‘challenge’ is a difficulty which carries within it an opportunity for progress. Three major challenge are:
Foundational challenge is about making the transition to democracy and then instituting a democratic government. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling the government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. Example: Myanmar, Chile, Nepal Challenge of Expansion is faced by most of the established democracies. This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.” Most countries including India and other democracies like the US face this challenge.
Deepening of democracy:
This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy, especially those that help people’s participation and control. This attempts to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision,
 

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