CBSE Class X Science

Download Class 10 Science NCERT Solutions, easy to learn chapter notes from books, latest solved sample papers and past year boards question papers with solutions. Also get free Exemplar problem solutions. Access study material for science free download in pdf, all study material has been prepared based on latest guidelines, term examination pattern and blueprint issued by CBSE and NCERT

If you as a student reads the Class 10 Science book released by NCERT then first of all you will be able to score better in the Class 10 Science examinations and also if you have thoroughly studied all chapters given in the textbook then you will be able to understand and perform the following activities -

  1. Recognize the difference between reactions, such as exothermic and endothermic.
  2. Observes to understand the difference in the temperatures in both the reactions using laboratory thermometer.
  3. Investigate the ways of segregation of waste materials on the basis of their degradation property. They may be encouraged to practice the segregation of waste before disposal at home, school and public places.
  4. Explore the relationship between two physical quantities, such as between potential difference across a conductor and the current through it. Design, conduct and share the findings of an activity. You can test your understanding here by checking out Worksheets for Class 10 Science.
  5. Find out ‘why’ and ‘how’ of processes/ phenomena, such as transportation in plants and animals, extraction of metals from ores, with the help of activities/ experiments/demonstration. The learners may be encouraged to discuss, relate, conclude and explain to process/phenomena to their peers.
  6. Observe diagrams, such as of digestive tract, and names given to various parts. The learners may be motivated to make poster of digestive tract for displaying in school. They may also be provided opportunities to use ICT tools for drawing.
  7. Collect wide variety of graphs from newspapers, magazines, or internet, with a view to understand the information contained therein. The learners may be facilitated to draw a graph, such as V-I graph for analysing the relationship between the potential difference across a conductor and the current through it.
  8. Study how chemical equations are balanced using simple mathematical skills. This is a regular topic asked in the board exams and you should practice Sample Papers for Class 10 Science regularly. Discussion may be conducted on the significance of balancing of chemical equations.
  9. Get familiar with New Cartesian Sign Convention using illustrated cards and may be given ample opportunities to apply the sign convention in various situations of reflection by spherical mirrors.
  10. Perform a role-play on ecosystem on a hypothetical situation, such as what will happen if all herbivores suddenly vanish from earth. This may be followed by a discussion about how the loss of biodiversity disrupts the food chain hereby adversely affecting the energy flow in an ecosystem.
  11. Derive equations, formulae, laws, etc. and practice doing some Printable Worksheets for Class 10 Science too.
  12. for example, the derivation for formula of the equivalent resistance of resistors in series (or parallel). They should be encouraged to practice the derivation till they are confident.
  13. Study the features inherited through genes, such as attached or free earlobes. They may be encouraged to observe and compare the earlobes of their friends with the ear lobes of their parents and grandparents to arrive at the conclusion that characters or traits are inherited in off-springs from their parents.
  14. Collect print and non-print materials by exploring library and internet about scientists and their findings to appreciate how concepts evolved with time. They may be motivated to share their findings by preparing posters and performing role play/ skits. Collect eco-friendly/ commonly available materials to design and develop technological devices / innovative exhibits, such as electric motor, soda acid fire extinguisher, respiratory system. They may be motivated to display their exhibits/ models in science exhibitions, science club, classrooms, during parent–teacher meet and to respond to the queries raised during nteraction.
  15. Visit classrooms, laboratories, library, toilets, playground, etc. to identify places where wastage of electricity and water may be occurring. Discussion may be held on importance of natural resources and their conservation, leading to the conviction for adoption of good habits in their day to day life. The learners may also organize a sensitization programme on such issues.
  16. Share their findings of the activities/ projects/ experiments, such as extraction of metals from ores, working of electric motor and generator, formation of rainbow, etc. in oral and written forms. Report writing may be facilitated to share their findings by using appropriate technical terms/ figures/ tables/ graphs, etc. They may be encouraged to draw conclusions on the basis of their observations.


Theme : Materials

Unit I : Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour                                              

Chemical reactions : Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implication of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions : Combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.

Acids, bases and salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.

Metals and nonmetals : Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series;

Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes;

Corrosion and its prevention.

Carbon compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compunds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.

Periodic classification of elements : Need for classification, Early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

Theme : The World of the Living

Unit II : World of Living                                                                                                                    

Life processes : ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

Control and co-ordination in animals and plants : Topic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals; Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.

Reproduction : Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV / AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.

Heredity and Evolution : Heredity; Mendel’s contribution - Laws for inheritance of traits : Sex determination : brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.

Theme : Natural Phenomena

Unit III : Natural Phenomena                                                                                                        

Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.

Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.

Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.

Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.

Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

Theme : How Things Work

Unit IV : Effects of Currect                                                                                                               

Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, resistivity, Factors on which the resistane of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.

Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct Current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Theme : Natural Resources

Unit V : Natural Resources                                                                                                                

Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy : Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.

Out environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Management of natural resources : Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.


Praticals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.


  • Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper / universal indicator:
  • Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
  • Dilute NaOH solution
  • Dilute Ethanoic Acid Solution
  • Lemon juice
  • Water
  • Dilute Hydrogen Carbonate solution

Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) by their reaction with:

  • Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
  • Zinc metal
  • Solid sodium carbonate
  • Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into :
  • Combination reaction
  • Decomposition reaction
  • Displacement reaction
  • Double displacement reaction
  • Action of water on quick lime
  • Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
  • Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
  • Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions


  1. Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions :
  • ZnSO4 (aq)
  • FeSO4 (aq)
  • CuSO4 (aq)
  • Al2 (SO4)3 (aq)

Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.

  1. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
  1. Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.
  1. Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
  1. Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
  2. Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
  • odour
  • solubility in water
  • effect on litmus
  • reaction with sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
  1. Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
  1. Determination of the focal length of :
  • Concave mirror
  • Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object.
  1. Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
  1. Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
  2. Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
  3. Finding the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and drawing corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
  1. Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).

Prescribed Books

  • Science - Textbook for class IX - NCERT Publication
  • Science - Textbook for class X - NCERT Publication
  • Assessment of Practical Skills in Science - Class IX - CBSE Publication
  • Assessment of Practical Skills in Science - Class X - CBSE Publication
  • Laboratory Manual - Science - Class IX, NCERT Publication
  • Laboratory Manual - Science - Class X, NCERT Publication
  • Exemplar Problems - Clss IX - NCERT Publication
  • Exemplar Problems Class X - NCERT Publication