CBSE Class 10 Social Science Nationalism In India Assignment

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Nationalism In India Class 12 Social Science Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Social Science students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Nationalism In India in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Social Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Social Science Assignment for Nationalism In India

NATIONALISM IN INDIA

Nationalism in India developed in the colonial context. Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India from Africa in 1915. Under his leadership several mass movements were organized.

1. The first world war, Khilafat and Non Cooperation-

1) War and its effects- Huge increase in defenses expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Through the years the prices increased doubling between 1913- 1918 leading to extreme hardship for the common people.

2) Gandhiji and Satyagraha- Champaran in Bihar (1917) Kheda in Gujarat (1918). In 1919 nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act was launched by Gandhi. 13th April and Jallianwalla Bagh massacre world war I and Khilafat issued, At the Congress session t Nagpur in Dec 1920, a compromise was worked out and Non cooperation programme was adopted. Movements in towns, Rebellion in country side

2) Towards civil Disobedience-
(1) Swaraj Party was founded by CR Das and Moti Lal Nehru for return to council Politics.
(2) Simon commission and boycott
(3) Lahore congress and demand for purna swaraj

3) Dandi march and the civil Disobedience movements- 
(1) Governments repressive policy
(2) Gandhi Irwin Pact and failure of round table conference.
(3) Re-launching of movements.

4) Who participated in the movements - the rich peasant communities the poor peasantry the industrial workers in Nagpur and a large scale participation of women took active part in the movement.

5) Limits of the movements less participation by untouchables. - Ambedker for separate electorate and Poona pact.

6) The sense of collective belonging- this sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles role of folklore and songs. 2. Identity of India and Bharat Mata.

MCQs

Question :  Which of the following in true with reference of Satyagraha?
a) It emphasized the muscle power
b) It emphasized the Power of truth
c) Gandhiji successfully fought the racist regime of South Africa with the novel method.
(a) Only A is true
(b) Only B is true
(c) Both A and B are true
(d) Both B and C are true
Answer : D

Question : From which year, the National Movement spread to new areas incorporating new social groups and developing new modes of struggle?
(a) 1914
(b) 1916
(c) 1919 
(d) 1918
Answer : C  

Question :  At which place congress session of September 1920 held.
(a) Nagpur   
(b) Calcutta   
(c) Lahore   
(d) Madras
Answer : B  

Question :  Who was the leader of the Peasant Movements of Awadh?
(a) Alluri sitaram Raju   
(b) Baba Ramchandra   
(c) Mahatma Gandhi   
(d) None of the above
Answer : B

Question :  Under which act the Plantations workers of Assam were not permitted to leave the tea garden?
(a) The Rowlatt Act   
(b) Cripps Mission   
(c) The Inland Migration act   
(d) The Inland Emigration act
Answer : D

Question : Who among the following led the Indian workers from Newcastle to Transvaal?
(a) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) General Dyer
(c) Lord Irwin
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer : D

Question : With this, Gandhiji decided to participate in Round Table Conference in London :
(a) Nagpur Congress
(b) Gandhi-Irwin Pact
(c) Quit India Movement
(d) Chauri Chaura incident
Answer : B

Question : In which year Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act?
(a) 1919
(b) 1917
(c) 1920
(d) 1910
Answer : A

Question : Which of the following communities chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogan demanding `Swatantra Bharat' during the Non- Cooperation Movement?
(a) Tribals
(b) Dalits
(c) Women
(d) Plantation workers
Answer : D

Question : Identify the correct reason of Simon Commission coming to India?
(a) To control the campaign against the British in cities
(b) To see the functioning of the British government,
(c) To initiate Salt Law in India
(d) To suggest changes in the functioning of the Constitutional system in India.
Answer : D

Question : Which among the following events occurred on 31 Jan, 1930?
(a) Gandhiji wrote a letter to Lord Irwin
(b) Lahore Session of Congress was concluded
(c) The Salt March was launched by Gandhiji
(d) Simon Commission arrived in India
Answer : A

Question : After the_______incident, Gandhiji was forced to halt the Non-cooperation movement.
(a) Chauri Chaura
(b) Jallianwalla Bagh
(c) Visit of Simon Commission
(d) Salt March
Answer : A

Question : _______is a form of demonstration used in the Non-Cooperation Movement in which people block the entrance to a shop, factory or office.
(a) Boycott
(b) Begar
(c) Picketing
(d) Hartal
Answer : C

Question : Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the peasants were not permitted to :
(a) leave their village
(b) settle in the city
(c) leave their plantation without permission
(d) allow the women to leave farmlands without permission
Answer : C

Question : Identify the appropriate reason for the formation of the Swaraj party from the options given below:
(a) Wanted members of Congress to return to council politics.
(b) Wanted members of Congress to ask for Purna Swaraj for Indians
(c) Wanted members of Congress to ask Dominion Status for India.
(d) Wanted members of Congress to oppose Simon Commission.
Answer : A

Question : Which among the following was the main demand of the peasant movement led by Baba Ramchandra in Awadh ?
(a) Reduction of revenue
(b) Abolition of begar
(c) Social boycott of oppressive landlords
(d) All of the above
Answer : D

Question : Which one among the following is related to the Inland Emigration Act of 1859?
(a) Peasants and agricultural workers
(b) Workers of Tea Plantation
(c) Cotton mill workers
(d) Civil services officers
Answer : A

Question : Who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association?
(a) Dr. B.R.Ambedkar
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Motilal Nehru
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer : A

Question : The object of the Simon Commission was :
(a) To suggest changes in the constitutional system of India.
(b) To pass legislation for improvement in the working condition of the plantation workers.
(c) To declare India as independent.
(d) To modify and develop the Indian education system.
Answer : A

Question : Who headed the ‘Oudh Kisan Sabha’ In Awadh?
(a) Subhash Chandra Bose
(b) Madan Mohan Malviya
(c) Bipin Chadra Pal
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer : D

Question :  Name the leaders who founded Swaraj Party?
(a) CR Das and Motilal Nehru   
(b) CR Das and Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) CR Das and Gandhiji   
(d) CR Das and Dr B.R Ambedkar
Answer : A

Question :  At which of the following place did Gandhiji make salt out of sea water
(a) Ahmedabad 
(b) Wardha   
(c) Sabarmati   
(d) Dandi
Answer : D

Question :  Who wrote 'Hind Swaraj?
(a) Subhas Chandra Bose
(b) Jawaharlal Lal Nehru
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Sardar Patel
Answer : C

Question : Which incident forced Gandhiji to halt the Non – cooperation movement?
(a) Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Rowlett act
(c) Chauri Chaura
(d) Arrest of Alluri Sitaram Rammaya
Answer : C

Question : Who among the following led the civil disobedience movement in Peshawar ?
(a) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Mohamad Ali
(c) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
(d) None of the above
Answer : C

Question : Who was the President of Muslim League in 1930?
(a) Sir Muhammad Iqbal
(b) Shaukat Ali
(c) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(d) Maulana Azad
Answer : A

Question : Who first created the image of Bharatmata?
(a) Abanindranath Tagore
(b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(c) Rabindra nath Tagore
(d) None of the above
Answer : B

Question : The Round Table Conferenc which was boycotted by the Congress.
(a) Second
(b) First
(c) Third
(d) None of the above
Answer : B
 
Question : In Which continent, modern nationalism came to be associated with the formation of nation-state?
(a) Australia
(b Europe
(c) North America
(d) Africa
Answer : B
 

ASSERTION AND REASON

DIRECTION : Mark the option which is most suitable :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
 
Question : Assertion : In 1917, Gandhiji organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.
Reason : The peasants were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic. They could not pay the revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.
Answer : (a) Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion. *
The peasants wanted that their revenue collection be relaxed because they were at a complete loss because of the epidemic. Gandhiji came forward and organized a Satyagraha to provide them with a platform to raise their voice.
 
Question : Assertion : The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons in the cities.
Reason : As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Answer : (b) Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
Khadi cloth was often more expensive than massproduced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. Non-cooperation Movement was gradually turning violent, some leaders were by now, very tired of mass struggle, that is now it lost momentum.
Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but the reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
 
Question : Assertion : When Simon Commission arrived in India, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
Reason : This happened as Mahatma Gandhi was on Dandi March during that time.
Answer : (c) Assertion is true but reason is false.
The Simon Commission was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’ because it did not have a single Indian member. They were all British but had come to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Gandhiji went on Dandi March on 11 March 1930. The reason thus does not explain the assertion.
 
Question : Assertion : Rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes.
Reason : However, they were deeply happy when the movement was called off in 1931 with revenue rates being lowered.
Answer : (c) Assertion is true but reason is false.
The peasants were deeply disappointed when the Civil Disobedience Movement was called off in 1931 without revenue rates being revised. They wanted the revenue rates revised and were thus actively participating in the movement but were deeply hurt when they could not achieve the same. Therefore, The assertion is true but reason is false.
 
 

Very Short Answer Questions

Question : What was the outcome of the Poona pact? How did it benefit the dalits?
Answer :   The Poona pact of sept. 1932 gave the depressed classes reserved seat in provincial and central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Question : Name the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’.
Answer :  Mahatma Gandhi is the writer of the book Hind Swaraj.

Question :  Explain the problems faced in unifying people.
Answer :  All credits of glorious past were attributed to the Aryans and their contributions therefore it became difficult to bring all communities on a single platform.

Question : What is the importance of the Lahore Congress Session of 1929?
Answer :  The demand of Purna Swaraj or complete independence for India was made in this session.

Question : For long the congress had ignored the dalits. What was the reason behind this?
Answer :  The congress did not want to offend the conservative high-caste Hindus.

Question : Who led the Awadh peasants during the Non-cooperation Movement?
Answer :  Baba Ramchandra led the Awadh peasants during the Non-cooperation movement.

Question : Name the two Indian leaders between whom the Poona Pact was segied.
Answer :  Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question : What was the Civil Disobedience Movement associated with?
Answer :  It was associated with the breaking of salt law.

Question : What do you know about the Poona Pact?
Answer :  The Poona Pact was signed between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi in 1932 to resolve the question of separate electorates for dalits. It gave depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.

Question : How did Gandhiji visualise women?
Answer :  Gandhiji opined that it was the duty of women to look after hearth and home, be good mothers and good wives.

Question : What was the forced recruitment?
Answer :  It was a process by which the colonial state forced people, especially the people belonging to rural areas, to join the army.

Question : Name the places where Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised satyagrah movements.
Answer :  (i) Champaran in Bihar
(ii) Kheda in Gujarat

Question : When does nationalism spread in a country?
Answer :  Nationalism spread in a country when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that bounds them together.

Question : Give one reason why the Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down in the cities.
Answer :  Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. Hence they could not boycott mill cloth for a long time. 

Question : State the slogan with which Simon Commission was greeted in 1928 in India.
Answer :  Simon Commission arrived in India and was greeted with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.

Question : How did Gandhiji visualise women?
Answer : Gandhiji opined that it was the duty of women to look after hearth and home, be good mothers and good wives.

 

Short Answer Questions 

Question :  What were the effects of non cooperation on the economic front?
Answer :  Foreign goods were boycotted, Liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire many traders refused to import foreign cloth the import of foreign cloth reached to half.

Question :  What were the causes for the gradual slowing down of the Non- co operation movement in the cities?
Answer : (1) Khadi was more expensive than the mill produced cloth and the poor could not afford it.
(2) British institutions were boycotted but the process of establishing Indian institutions was slow so the students and teachers started joining the British institution again.

Question :  Describe the main events leading to civil disobedience.
Answer :  1) World wide economic depression
2) Simon commission was constituted in 1929 and no Indian member was appointed.
3) Lord Irwin announced that Dominion State would be granted to India.
4) At the Lahore congress session resolution for purna swaraj was passed.

Question :  What did freedom mean to Plantation workers in Assam?
Answer : 1) Right to move freely in and out of their enclosures.
2) Retaining link with their villages
3) They were not allowed to leave the tea garden without permission which they wanted.

Question :  what was the role of women in the civil Disobedience movement?
Answer :  1) Participated is the salt Satyagraha in large number.
2) They participated in protest marches and also manufactured salt.
3) Many women went to jails
4) In rural areas the women considered service to the nation a sacred duty. 

Question :  Why and how is the identity of a nation symbolized in a Figure?
Answer :  It helps create an image with which people can identify the nation.
2) With the growth of nationalism identify of India came to be associated with the image of Bharat Mata.

Question : State the three cultural presses through which nationalism captured people’s imagination during the British rule in India.
Or
How did the image of Bharat Mata help in creating a sense of collective belongingness amongst the people of India?
Or
Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and inspiring in them the feeling of nationalism. Explain with examples.
Answer :  (i) Image of Bharat Mata: The identity of nation was symbolised in an image. Rabindranath painted the famous image of Bharat-Mata. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as an evidence of one’s nationalism.
(ii) Folklore: Nationalists toured villages to gather folk tales. These tales gave a true picture of one’s national identity and helped in restoring a sense of pride in one’s past.
(iii) Icon and Symbols: Nationalist leaders used icons and symbols to unite the people and create in them a feeling of nationalism.
Examples:
• During the Swedeshi movement a tri colour flag was designed.
• In 1921, Gandhiji designed the Swaraj flag carrying the flag during protest marches became a symbol of defiance.

Question : How did Khilafat movement gain momentum? or How did Mahatma Gandhi view the Khilafat issue?
Answer :  (i) In the First World War, Ottoman Turkey was defeated and a harsh peace treaty was imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(ii) To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March, 1919.
(iii) A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
(iv) At the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1920 he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.

Question : Mention three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer :  Three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement are:
(i) Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
(ii) As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
(iii) The government refused to reduce the revenue demand. This led to widespread resentment among the rich peasants and they enthusiastically supported the movement.

Question : Explain the circumstances under which Gandhiji decided to call off the civil disobedience movement in 1931.
Answer :  (i) The civil disobedience movement got momentum when thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law by manufacturing salt worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in which. Many were killed.
(ii) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations — all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iii) The colonial government got frightened. It adopted a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagraha were attacked, women and children were beaten and many people were arrested.
In such a situation, Gandhiji decided to call of the movement and entered into a pact with Irwin on 5th March, 1931.

Question : What was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859?
Or
What was the notion of Swaraj for the plantation workers in Assam?
Answer :  (i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the plantation workers were not permitted to leave tea-gardens without permission and, in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
(ii) Thousands of plantation workers defied the authorities that left the plantation and headed home.
(iii) They believed Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.
(iv) They however, never reached their destination.
(v) Stranded on the way by railway and steamer strike they were caught by the police and badly beaten up.

Question : Discuss the factors that deteriorated the relations between Hindus and Muslims.
Answer :  (i) After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, a large section of Muslims felt separated from the Congress.
(ii) From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(iii) This worsened the relations between Hindus and Muslims.
(iv) Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
(v) Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
(vi) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (leader of the Muslim League) agreed to quit the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were guaranteed reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab).
(vii) But all hopes were dashed in 1928 when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed to compromise.
(viii) In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, (President of the Muslim League) re-stated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests.

Question : Why did Mahatma Gandhi support the Khilafat Movement?
Answer :  Mahatma Gandhi supported the Khilafat Movement due to these reasons:
(i) The Rowlatt Satyagraha had been a wide spread movement, no doubt, but it was still limited mostly to cities and towns.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India.
(iii) But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue. Therefore, he decided to support this issue.

Question : Method of reinterpretation of history was followed to encourage nationalism. Discuss.
Or
How was history re-interested in creating a feeling of nationalism? Explain with examples.
Answer :  (i) Reinterpretation of history was an important means to create a feeling of nationalism.
(ii) The British saw Indians as backward and primitive.
(iii) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.
(iv) They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade flourished.
(v) This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline when India was colonised.
(vi) These nationalist histories advocated the readers to be proud of India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.
(vii) A growing anger against the colonial government and hope of reviving the glorious past infused a strong sense of patriotism in Indians.
(viii) They fought back for their rights and finally, in 1947 achieved it in form of independence and freedom from British Raj.

Question : Write a note on Jallianwalla Bagh massacre.
Answer :  Jallianwalla Bagh massacre holds an important and significant position in the Freedom Movement of India. It took place in Amritsar on 13 April, 1919. On this very day a protest meeting against the government’s new repressive measures (the Rowlatt Act) was being held at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar. The meeting was attended by a large number of men, women and children. The only entrance of the park was blocked by the British army on the orders of General Dyer. He ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without giving a word of warning. Thousands of people were killed and many were injured. It was the cold blooded murder of innocent people.
As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. The Satyagrahis were forced to rub their nose on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.

Question : Mention three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
Answer :  Three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement are:
(i) Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
(ii) As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
(iii) The government refused to reduce the revenue demand. This led to widespread resentment among the rich peasants and they enthusiastically supported the movement.

Question : An important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. Explain.
Answer :  (i) Women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement on a large-scale.
(ii) During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him.
(iii) They participated in protest marches and manufactured salt.
(iv) They picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
(v) In urban areas, these women were from high-caste families and in rural areas they came from rich peasant households.
(vi) Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

Question : Explain the differences that emerged the congress and the Muslim league on Political issues.
Answer :  The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected Muhammad Ali Jinnah of the Muslim league was willing to give up that demand for eparate electorates if Muslim were given reserved seats in the central assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated provinces.

Question : Explain the factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in the later half of the 19th century.
Answer :  1) Economic exploitation 2) Administrative and economic unification of the country.
3) Western education' 4) Development of Press.

Write in Brief
Question : Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer :
(a) Colonisation affected people’s freedom, and nationalist sentiments surged during the process of struggle against imperial domination. The sense of oppression and exploitation became a common bond for people from different walks of life, and this resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals. Thus, growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anticolonial movements.
(b) During the First World War, the British army conducted forced recruitment from rural areas in India. To finance the defence expenditure, high custom duties and income taxes were imposed. Also, during 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, thereby resulting in acute food shortages. All this caused extensive anger and opposition against the British colonial rule, and the national movement of India headed towards a stronger, more definitive direction.
(c) The Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly through the Imperial Legislative Council despite opposition from Indian members. It gave the government autocratic powers to repress political activities besides allowing it to detain political prisoners without a trial, for two years. The Indian were outraged by this act as it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive, and hurt national sentiments and dignity.
(d) Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to various incidents of violence perpetrated by the masses, especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where the people clashed with the police, setting a police-station on fire. Gandhiji felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass struggle, and that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for non-violent demonstrations.

Question : Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Answer :
a) On 13th April 1919, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh – some to protest against the British government’s repressive measures, others to attend the annual Baishakhi Fair. These people were unaware of the imposition of Marshal Law in the city. General Dyer, the Commander, blocked the exit points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Dyer’s intention was to produce a ‘moral effect’ and terrorize satyagrahis. Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed and wounded due to this indiscriminate firing by the British soldiers, which ultimately led to nation-wide outrage. Jallianwala Bagh incident was the most brutal incident in the History of India.
b) The Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain, under Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had not a single Indian member. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations.

Question : Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism. 
Answer :  The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done in revolt against a commodity- salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt, and the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move. The Salt March was effective also because Gandhiji met a large number of commoners during the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and nonviolence.
By peacefully defying a law and making salt against government orders, Gandhiji set forth an example to the whole nation of how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. This also led to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

 

Long Answer Questions 

Question : How did Mahatma Gandhi organize Satyagraha in various places in India ?
Answer :  In 1917 he traveled in champaran ran, Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against oppressive plantation system.
2) In 1919 he organized Satyagraha to support peasants of Kheda in Gujarat.
3) In 1918 he went to Ahmedabad to organize this movement amongst cotton mill workers.
4) In 1919 he launched Satyagraha against Rowlatt act.

Question : What were the reasons for the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement? What was Gandhiji’s idea behind launching it as stated in his book ‘Hind Swaraj’? 
                                       Or
Why did Mahatma Gandhi feel the need to launch a broad-based movement in 1920? Give reasons.
Answer :  Reasons for the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) Indians were very hopeful that their hardships would end after the First World War was over. But that did not happen.
(ii) The enforcement of Rowlatt Act in 1919: The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Mahatma Gandhi launched a movement against these unjust laws. But seeing the violence spread, he called off the movement. This had been a widespread movement no doubt but was limited to cities and towns. Gandhiji now wanted to launch a more broad-based movement in India.
(iii) The Khilafat issue: The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. As a result, a harsh peace treaty was imposed on the Ottoman emperor—the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
Mahatma Gandhi decided to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
In his famous book Hind Swaraj he declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. He was sure that if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse and swaraj would come. Hence, he started Non-Cooperation Movement with full vigour.

Question : How did people and the colonial government react to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer :  The Civil Disobedience Movement started in 1930 against the salt law. The people of India and the colonial government reacted to the movement in their own way. Reaction of the Indian people:
(i) Thousands of Indians in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(ii) As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forests laws – going into Reserved forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
Reaction of the government
(i) Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one. First of all they arrested Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi.
(ii) A month later, Gandhiji himself was arrested. This enraged the public. Industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings law courts and railway stations — all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iii) A frightened government responded with policy brutal repression. Peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and thousands of people were arrested.

Question : “Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement.” Examine the statement.
Answer :  Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement. There were several reasons behind it:
(i) The congress had ignored the dalits for a long time because it suffered from a fear of offending the Sanatans, who were the conservative high caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
(ii) He organised statyagrahas to secure them entry into temples and access to public wells, roads, etc. He persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the ‘sin of untouchability’.
(iii) But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
(iv) Dalit participation in Civil Disobedience Movement was therefore limited, particularly in the Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was quite strong.

Question : “Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.” Examine the statement.
Answer :  (i) A large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress after the decline of non-cooperation and Khilafat movement.
(ii) From the mid 1920s, the congress came to be visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(iii) Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities deepened the distance between the two communities.
(iv) The congress and the Muslim league made efforts to renegotiate an alliance, and in 1927, it appeared that such a unity could be forged.
(v) The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
(vi) Mohammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate decorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated provinces. But M.R. Jayalear of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed it.
(vii) So, when the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between the two communities.
(viii) Alienated from the congress, large section of Muslims could not respond to the call for united struggle.

Question : What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
Answer :  When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January, 1915 he started a Satyagraha movement in India in various places.
(i) Satyagraha comprised of two Sanskrit words Satya and agraha. Satya means truth and agraha means path. Thus Satyagraha means following the path of truth and non-violence to attain freedom and fight against injustice.
(ii) It is the philosophy of non-violent resistance adopted by Gandhiji to end the British Raj in India.
(iii) The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and need to search for truth.
(iv) Satyagraha advocated that for true cause and struggle against injustice, physical force is not required to fight with the oppressor.
(v) Without being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win battle through non-violence.

Question : Write a note on Jallianwalla Bagh massacre.
Answer :  Jallianwalla Bagh massacre holds an important and significant position in the Freedom Movement of India. It took place in Amritsar on 13 April, 1919. On this very day a protest meeting against the government’s new repressive measures (the Rowlatt Act) was being held at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar. The meeting was attended by a large number of men, women and children. The only entrance of the park was blocked by the British army on the orders of General Dyer. He ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without giving a word of warning. Thousands of people were killed and many were injured. It was the cold blooded murder of innocent people.
As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. The Satyagrahis were forced to rub their nose on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.

Question : Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Answer :  (i) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation against the British government in India.
(ii) He sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January, 1930 stating eleven demands from specific to general in the interest of all classes.
(iii) The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone would be brought together in a united campaign.
(iv) The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish salt tax. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food. Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum.
(v) It also threatened that if government did not exempt people from the salt tax then they would launch a campaign against it.
(vi) But Irwin showed reluctance and took the warning lightly. Thus, Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Gandhiji in the year 1930. It was an important milestone in the history of Indian nationalism.
(vii) The main ideology behind the Civil Disobedience Movement was to defy the laws made by the British. Gandhiji started his famous salt march (Dandi March) accompanied by 78 followers, from his ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. On 6 April, he reached Dandi, and openly violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

Question : Explain the role played by tribal peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh during the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Or
Analyse any four features of the Gudem rebellion of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer :  The Gudem rebellion spread in response to Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
The four features of this rebellion are:
(i) In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju.
(ii) The hill people got enraged when the colonial government prevented them from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood and fruits.
(iii) They considered Sitaram Raju as an incarnation of God inspired by Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement, Raju persuaded the Gudem rebels to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
(iv) The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.

Question : What was Rowlatt Act? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act?
                                Or
How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.
Answer :  (i) The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 by the British government despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave enormous powers to the government.
(iii) Now, the British government could suppress the political activities, and allow detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
Indian people reacted to it stoutly. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, they decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(i) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(ii) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(iii) Shops closed down.
To suppress the nationalists the British administration
(i) Put the local leaders in jail.
(ii) Debarred Mahatma Gandhi from entering Delhi.
(iii) On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.
(iv) On 13 April, the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.

Question : Explain the circumstances under which Gandhiji decided to call off the civil disobedience movement in 1931.
Answer :  (i) The civil disobedience movement got momentum when thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law by manufacturing salt worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in which. Many were killed.
(ii) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations — all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iii) The colonial government got frightened. It adopted a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagraha were attacked, women and children were beaten and many people were arrested.
In such a situation, Gandhiji decided to call of the movement and entered into a pact with Irwin on 5th March, 1931.

 

SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS

Question : Study the given extract (Source A) taken from NCERT Textbook page 55 carefully and answer the questions that follow:

" Satyagraha is not physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction ... In the use of satyagraha, there is no ill will whatever. Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love... Non violence is the supreme dharma.... It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own .... "

(i) What is the main difference between physical force and soul force?
Answer :  (i) Physical force believes in violent ways for achieving the goal. But soul force believes in non-violence and truth.

(ii) Why can’t Indians carry arms? Explain.
Answer :  (ii) Indians cannot carry arms because they have made the religion of non-violence their own.

 

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Question : During the national movement, many women, for the first time in their lives, moved out of their homes on to a public arena. How did these women support Mahatma Gandhi’s mission to gain independence?
Answer :  Women in a large number, came forward when Mahatma Gandhi started his Salt March against the tax on salt. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jain happily. They saw service to the nation as a sacred duty. 

Question : Mahatma Gandhi believed in satyagraha, a novel method of mass agitation. After arriving in India from South Africa, he successfully organised Satyagraha Movements in various places.
Which values are associated with Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha?
Answer :  Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
In the light of the above fact we can infer the following values associated with satyagraha:
(i) Truth, (ii) Non-violence, (iii) Intense activity and (iv) Justice.

Extra Questions

Question :  What do you know about peasants movement in Awash? Explain

Question :  What do you know about Gandhi Irwin pact?

Question :  What was Khilafat movement?

Question :  What do you know about Alluri Sitaram Raju

Question :  What were the causes of withdrawal of non co operation movement?

Question :  Explain the impact of the Jalliawala incidents on the people

Question :  How could the non co operation become a movement? Explain

Question :  How was civil disobedience movement was different from Non cooperation movement? 

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