CBSE Class 12 Chemistry - Solutions Chapter Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
Ch. 2: Solutions
1. Mass percentage of a component =Mass of component in solution / Toal mass of solution *100
2. Volume percentage of a component = Volume of component/ 100 Total volume of solution *100
3. Mole fraction of a component (x) = Number ofmoles of component / Total number ofmoles of all components
4. ppm= Number of parts of component / Total number of parts of all components of solution *106
5. Molarity=Number of moles of solute / Volumeof solution in litres
6. Molarity=Number of moles of solute / Mass of solvent in kilograms
7. Normality=Number of gram equivalent of solute / Volumeof solution in litres
8. p10 - p1 /p10 =x2
9. ΔT = Tb- Tbo
ΔTb = Kb*1000*W2 /M2* w1
10. ΔT =Tfo -Tf
ΔTf = Kf*1000*w2 /M2*w1
11∏ = CRT
12. M2 =w2 RT / ∏V
1. Solutions are the homogeneous mixtures of two or more than two components.
2. Binary solution: A solution having two components is called a binary solution. Components of a binary solution are solute and solvent.
a. When the solvent is in solid state, solution is called solid solution.
b. When the solvent is in liquid state, solution is called liquid solution.
c. When the solvent is in gaseous state, solution is called gaseous solution.
3. Concentration is the amount of solute in given amount of solution.
4. Mass by volume percentage (w/v): Mass of the solute dissolved in 100 mL of solution.
5. Molality (m) is the number of moles of solute present in 1kg of solvent.
6. Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute present in 1L of solution.
7. Normality is the number of gram equivalent of solute dissolved per litre of solution.
8. Solubility is its maximum amount that can be dissolved in a specified amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
9. A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at the same temperature and pressure is called a saturated solution.
10. In a nearly saturated solution if dissolution process is an endothermic process, solubility increases with increase in temperature.
11. In a nearly saturated solution if dissolution process is an exothermic process, solubility decreases with increase in temperature.
12. Henry’s Law: The law states at a constant temperature the solubility of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of gas. Henry’s law can also be stated as the partial pressure of gas in vapour phase is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution.
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