CBSE Class 12 Chemistry D And F Block Elements Board Exam Notes

 d‐block consists of elements belonging to group 3‐12.
 The general electronic configuration of these elements in (n‐1) d1–10 ns1–2. They contain unpaired d - electron either in elementary or most commonly occurring oxidation state.
 Transition elements exhibits metallic character, high densities, high melting and boiling point due to strong interatomic interaction between partially filled d - orbits.'
 Transition elements show variable oxidation state due to small energy difference between (n‐1)d & ns orbitals.
 Transition metals show colour due to presence of unpaired electron in (n‐1)d orbital of penultimate shell which undergoes d‐d transition generally
 Transition metal elements are paramagnetic due to presence of unpaired e .
 Most of transition form complex compounds due to
(I) small size
(ii) high charge
(iii) presence of vacant d‐orbital of suitable energy.
 Transition elements have lower value of reduction potential due to high ionization potential, high heat of sublimation and low enthalpy of hydration.
 Transition elements form interstitial compounds because as small atoms like C, N, O, H. occupy the voids and get bonded to the atom of transition metals.
 Transition elements form alloys due to similar ionic radii as they can mutually substitute their position in the crystal lattice.
 The oxides of transition metals in lower oxidation states are basic, intermediate oxidation states are amphoteric, highest oxidation state are acidic.
 The highest oxidation state of an element is equal to no. of unpaired electrons present in (n‐1)d & ns orbitals.

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