CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Board Exam Notes

KEY CONCEPTS

 
1. DRUGS‐ Drugs are chemical of low molecular masses, which interact with macromolecular targets and produces a biological response.
2. CHEMOTHERAPY‐ The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy.
3. CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
 
a) ON THE BASIS OF PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT‐ Useful for doctors as it provides whole range of drugs for treatment of particular kind of disease.
b) ON THE BASIS OF DRUG ACTION‐ Action of drug on a particular biochemical process.
c) ON THE BASIS OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE‐ Drugs having similar chemical structure.
d) ON THE BASIS OF MOLECULAR TARGETS‐ Drugs interacting with biomolecules as lipids, proteins.
 
4. ANTAGONISTS‐ The drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function.
5. AGONISTS‐Drugs mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor.
6. HORMONES- They are molecules that act as intercellular messengers.These are produced by endocrine glands in the body and are released directly in the blood stream.
7. ANTACIDS‐ These are compounds which neutralize excess acid of stomach. eg‐Aluminium Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide.
8. ANTI HISTAMINES – The drugs which interfere with the natural action of histamines and prevent the allergic reaction e.g.‐ Ranitidine, Brompheniramine.
9. TRANQUILIZERS‐ The class of chemical compound used for the treatment of stress, mild or even severe mental diseases e.g.‐ derivatives of Barbiturates, Luminal, Equanil.
10. ANALGESICS‐ They reduce pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion or some other disturbance of the nervous system. E.g.‐ Aspirin, Phenacetin.
11. ANTIMICROBIALS – They tend to prevent / destroy or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes as bacteria, virus, fungi etc. They are classified as :


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