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CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chemistry in Everyday Life Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.
Drugs are low molecular mass ( 100-500 u) substances which interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response.
Medicines The chemicals which causes therapeutic and useful biological response .
Chemotherapy-chemicals for therapeutic effect
Classification of Drugs
Pharmacological effect-drugs used for a particular type of problems. analgesics & antiseptics
Drug action-action of a drug on a particular biochemical process antihistamines.
Chemical Structure-common structural features and often have similar pharmacological activity.
Molecular targets-interact with biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids also called target molecules or drug targets.
Enzymes-biological catalysts proteins.
Receptors-proteins act as communication system
(a)Catalytic action of enzymes :
(i)hold the substrate on active site for a chemical reaction by enzyme in a suitable position through a variety of interactions.
(ii)to provide functional groups that will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction
(b)Drug-enzyme interaction :
Drugs(enzyme inhibitors) inhibit any activities of enzymes by blocking the binding site of the enzyme and prevent the binding of substrate through competitive inhibitors & deform the active site by binding to a different site of enzyme which is called allosteric site.
Antagonists-Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function
Agonists-drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor.
Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the gastric juices and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns and gastric ulcers Examples: Eno, gelusil, digene etc. excess of acid in stomach causing pains normally treated with sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide. on excess use of it will results production of even more acid. These treatments control only symptoms
Antihistamines:Chemical substances which diminish or abolish the effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic reactions Examples: Brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane) For treatment of hyperacidity is cimetidine(Tegment) which prevent the interaction of histamine with receptor present in stomach wall.Zantac is also used.Also usefull in other allergy like conjuctivities & rhinities.allergic response to pollen.Synthetic drugs, brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane), act as antihistamines. They interfere with the natural actionof histamine by competing with histamine for binding sites of receptor where histamine exerts its effect. above mentioned antihistamines not affect the secretion of acid in stomach because antiallergic and antacid drugs work on different receptors.
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