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ALDEHYDES,KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
1. Name one distinguishing test between aldehydes and ketones?
Ans. Aldehydes and ketones can be distinguished by Tollen’s test. Aldehydes give a silver mirror on reacting with Tollen’s reagent whereas ketones will not react.
2. Give reason why Formaldehyde does not undergo aldol condensation?
Ans. Formaldehyde does not have any α -hydrogen and therefore it cannot show aldol condensation.
3. Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than alcohols of same no. of carbon atoms?
Ans. Carboxylic acids have more extensive association of molecules through intermolecular hydrogen bonding than alcohols.
4. Write IUPAC name .of CH3COCH2COCH3.
5. What product is obtained when Ethyl benzene is oxidized with alkaline KMnO4?
Ans. Benzoic acid is formed.
6. Give chemical test to distinguish between acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde.
Ans. Acetaldehyde will respond to Iodoform test whereas benzaldehyde does not.
7. Write one chemical to distinguish between Formic acid and Acetic acid.
Ans.Formic acid gives silver mirror when treated with Tollen,’s reagent whereas acetic acid does not.
8. Give two important uses of formalin.
Ans.Used as a preservative.
Used for the preparation of Bakelite.
9. How is formalin and trioxane related to methanal?
Ans. Formalin is 40%aqeous solution of methanol whereas trioxane is trimer of methanal.
10. Complete the following reaction and give the name of the major product.
HCHO+ CH3MgX -----------------------------→ ?
Ans. HCHO +CH3MgX --------→-CH3CH2OH + Mg(OH)X
11. Draw the structural formula of Hex-2-en4-yn-oic acid.
12. Arrange the following in the increasing order of acidic character.
HCOOH, ClCH2COOH, CF3COOH, Cl3CCOOH
13. Complete the reaction:-
Ans.RCONH2+4NaOH+Br2-------→ RNH2+ 2NaBr+ Na2CO3+2H2O.
14. Give one chemical test to distinguish between Phenol and benzoic acid.
Ans. On treatment with neutral FeCl3 solution Phenol gives a violet color whereas Benzoic acid does not.
15. Most of the aromatic acids are solids while acetic acids and others of this series are liquids. Why?
Ans. Aromatic acids have higher molecular weights. Therefore more Vander Waal’s force of attraction as compared to aliphatic acids and hence they are solids.
1. Would you expect benzaldehyde to be more or less reactive in nucleophilic addition reaction
than Propanal? Explain your answer.
Ans. The carbon atom of the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde is less electrophilic than carbon atom of the carbonyl group present in propanal. The polarity of the carbonyl group is reduced in benzaldehyde due to resonance and hence is less reactive.
2. Describe the Trans esterification reaction giving an example.
Ans. When an ester reacts with alcohol to form another ester and another alcohol, the process is called trans-esterification.
CH3COOC2H5 +CH3OH ----------→ CH3COOC2H5 + C2H5OH
3. Explain Hell- Volhard –Zelinsky reaction with an example.
Ans. Carboxylic acids having an a α hydrogen atom are halogenated at the α position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorous to give α- halo carboxylic acids
RCH2COOH --------------→RCH(X) COOH.
4. Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between:-
(i) Pentan-2-one and Pentane-3-one
(ii) Ethanal and propanal
Ans. (i) Pentan-2-one gives Iodoform test on treatment with I2/NaOHwhere as Pentane -3-one does not.
(ii)Ethanal gives Iodoform test whereas Propanal does not.
5. Although Phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than Carboxylate ion, Carboxylic
acids are more acidic than Phenol .Why?
Ans. In carboxylate ion (-)ve charge is delocalized over two oxygen atoms whereas in phenoxide ion (-)ve charge is delocalized over one oxygen atom .Therefore carboxylate ion is more stable than phenoxide ion .That is why Carboxylic acids are more acidic than Phenol.
6. Why is there a large difference in the boiling points of but anal and butan-1-ol?
Ans:-Butan-1-ol has higher boiling point due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding
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