CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Solid State Notes and Questions

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Solid State Notes and Questions. Based on CBSE and NCERT guidelines. The students should practice these Questions to gain perfection which will help him to get more marks in CBSE examination. The preparation should be in a manner which helps the students to concentrate more in areas which carry more marks. 


SOLID STATE

KEY CONCEPT

As we know that matter exists in different physical states under different conditions of temperature and pressure. For example solid state, liquid gases plasma and BEC etc. Now we will study about different aspects of solid state. 

Introduction: 

1. The state of matter whose M.P is above room temp is solid state. Solids have definite shape and volume, having high density and constituent particles are held strongly. 

2. Based on arrangement of particles types of solid : 1: Crystalline 2:Amorphous 

3. Crystalline solids have regular arrangement of constituent particles throughout, melting point is sharp, Anisotropic in nature and give clear cut cleavage. 

4. Amorphous solids have no regular arrangement, no sharp M.P, isotropic in nature they do not exhibit cleavage property. 

5. Amorphous silica is used in photovoltaic cells.(Applications of amorphous solid) 

6. Space lattice is the regular 3D, arrangement of constituent particles in the crystalline solid. It shows how the constituents particles(atoms, molecules etc.) are arranged. 

7. Smallest repeating unit in a space lattice is called unit cell. 

8. There are 4 types of unit cells, 7 crystal systems and 14 bravais lattices. 

9. Types of unit cell                                    No. of atoms per unit cell

i. Simple cubic unit cell                                   8*1/8=1

ii. FCC (Face centered cubic)                       8*1/8+6*1/2=4

iii. BCC (Body centered cubic)                     8*1/8+1*1=2 

10.   Hexagonal close packing and cubic close packing have equal efficiency i.e 74% 

11.   Packing efficiency =volume occupied by spheres (Particles)/volume of unit cell *100 

12.   For simple cubic unit cell the p.f.=1*4/3 *πr3/8*r3 *100  =52.4 

13.   The packing efficiency in fcc =4*4/3 *πr3/16*2 1/2 r3 *100  =74 

14.   The packing efficiency in bcc =2*4/3 *πr3/64*33/2 r3 *100  =68 

15.   The packing efficiency in hcp =74 


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