Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology Revision Notes
Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Reproductive Health in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Reproductive Health Notes Class 12 Biology
Human reproductive health and sexuality involve great many components and interrelationships.
A total view of human reproductive health is basic to personal well-being as well as to interpersonal relationships.
Every individual is a unique sexual being.
Adolescents are vibrant, fragile and prone to experimentation and risk taking, as a result they are the most vulnerable population as far as delinquent behavior and attitude is concerned.
Every decision has its own consequence. Any wrong decision can lead to disastrous consequence, which in turn can ruin one’s life.
Sexual adjustment is part of total personality adjustment. Self-esteem is the key to sexual maturity.
Broad based community and institutional support for reproductive health is essential.
RCH PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES;
•Reproductive and child health care programmes are creating awareness among the people about various reproduction related aspects and providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society.
Adolescence Reproductive and Sexual Health(ARSH) topics are to be taken care of to dispel the myths and misconception about this important aspect with focus on:
• Reducing risky behavior
•Theories which explain what influences people's sexual choices and behavior
•Reinforced message about sexual behavior and risk reduction
• Providing accurate information about, the risks associated with sexual activity, about contraception birth control, methods of avoiding or deferring intercourse
• Dealing with peer and other social pressures on young people; providing opportunities to practice communication, negotiation and assertion skills
•Uses a variety of approaches to teaching and learning that involve and engage young people and help them to personalise the information
• Uses approaches to teaching and learning which are appropriate to young people's age, experience and cultural background .
• Decline in maternal mortality rate.
• Decline in infant mortality rate
• Advancement in medical science
• It is a pre natal technology of sex determination based on chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid .
• But people are misusing this technique for female foeticide.
Methods of birth control
(USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES)
CHARACTERS OF AN IDEAL CONTRACEPTIVE
• User friendly
• Easily available
• Effective and reversible with less or no side effects.
• Should not interfere with the normal sexual act of the user.
• Natural methods: It depends on a good knowledge of the menstrual cycle as well as adequate self control by the couple.
o Coitus Interruptus: Coitus interruptus means 'interrupted sex". In this birth control method, the penis is withdrawn from the vagina just before ejaculation.
Advantage - method does not require the use of any drug, does not interfere
with normal body functions, and the couple can plan for pregnancy at any time they want. The main disadvantage is that it is dependent almost wholly on the man's self-control.
PERIODIC ABSTINANCE METHOD; In this method the couple should avoid inter- course during ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle that is during the mid period of menstrual cycle.
Lactational amenorrhea method;
When the female is totally breast feeding her baby after child birth ovulation fails to occur.But this methd is effective only for 6 months after child birth.
• Barrier methods: In barrier methods of birth control, a barrier is placed between the penis and the vagina during intercourse so that the sperm cannot meet the ovum for fertilization.
o Male Condoms: Usually made of latex that covers the erect penis during penetration of the vagina.
o Female Condoms: Made of polyurethrane, loose sheath with two rings on either side. can be inserted about 8 hours prior to sexual intercourse and can be kept in for about another 12 hours after intercourse. Can be used more than once during this period.
o Condoms protect against pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS.
o Diaphragm: vaginal - a small saucer shaped rubber sheath with a metal coil in its rim which is fitted across the mouth of the uterus (cervix).
o Cervical Cap &vault: The cervical cap is a small dome-shaped rubber device fitted on the cervix. It is uncomfortable to apply and is rarely used nowadays.
• ORAL PILL : Drugs are used to either prevent ovulation or prevent implantation of the embryo after fertilization.
• Combined oral contraceptives contains two hormones similar to the natural hormones in a woman’s body---an estrogen and a progestogen .
• This pills are to be taken continuously for 21 days starting preferably within the first 5 days of menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days it has to repeated in the same pattern.
How the Birth Control Pill works:
The inhibit ovulation and implantation .
It alters the quality of cervical mucus.
• It is a non steroidal preparation
• Once in week pill.
• Has less side effects with high contraceptive value.
Emergency Oral Contraception After unprotected sex, emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy.
• Progestogens alone or in combination with estrogen can also be used by females as injections or implants under the skin .
• Its mode of action is similar to oral pills.
• But administration of progestogen or progestogen-estrogen combinations or IUD within 72 hours of coitus.
Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs):
These devices are inserted by doctors in the uterus through vagina.
TYPES OF IUDS:
• NON –MEDICATED IUD (Lippes loop) It is phagocytic to sperm.
• COPPER RELEASING IUD;(Cu T,Cu7,Multiload 375);Copper ions reduce the motility and fertilising capacity of the sperm.
• HORMONAL IUD;Reduces the motility and fertilising capacity of sperm.
• It makes the uterus unsuitable for implantationand cervix hostile to sperms.
Surgical Methods: These are more or less permanent methods of contraception.
o Vasectomy:The two tubes which carry sperm from the testes to the penis are the vas deferens. Tying them off and cut.
o TUBECTOMY;Asmall part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina.
o LIMITATION;These are irreversible methods.
• MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PERGNANCY;
• MTPs are essential in certain cases where continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal either to the mother or to the foetus or both.
• MTPs are safe during the first trimester.
• Use of MTP to eliminate female foetus is illegal.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES:- These are transmitted through sexual intercourse. se are also called venereal disease or reproductive tract infections.
Some diseases like AIDS ,Hepatitis –B are transmitted by sharing needles, surgical instruments and blood transfusion with the infected person.
SYMPTOMS OF STD IN MALE
• Itching , Fluid discharge ,slight pain swelling etc in the genital region.
SYMPTOMS OF STDs IN FEMALE
• Less significant symptoms in early stages.
• Pelvic inflammatory disease
• Still birth
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Infertility and cancer.
PREVENTION OF STDs:
• Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners
• Use of condom
• In case of doubt consult a doctor.
Please click the link below to download pdf file for CBSE Class 12 Biology - Reproductive Health notes.
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