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Biotechnology And Its Application Class 12 Biology Revision Notes
Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Biotechnology And Its Application in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Biotechnology And Its Application Notes Class 12 Biology
Chapter-12 BIOTECHNOLOGY & ITS APPLICATION
Biotechnology is making Genetically modified organisms-microbes, plants, animals for industrial production of Bio-Pharmaceuticals and other useful products.
i) Diagnostic & therapeutic ii) Genetically modified crops
iii) Waste treatment iv) Energy production
v) Food processing vi) Bioremediation
Application in agriculture
Genetically modified organisms (GMO)-Plants, bacteria, fungi, animals.whose genes are altered by manipulation.
Transgenic crops(GMO) -Crops contain or express one or more useful foreign genes.
Advantages -i) More tolerant to stresses (heat, cold, draught).
ii) Pest resistants GM crops, reduce the use of Chemical pesticides. Eg- BTCotton
iii) Reduced post harvest losses. Eg- Flavr savr tomato.
iv) Enhance nutritional value of food. eg.- Golden Rice (Vitamin A enriched).
v) Increased efficiency of mineral use.
PEST RESISTANT PLANTS
Bt- cotton -- BT stands for Bacillus thuringiensis (Soil Bacteria). Bacterium produces proteins (Crystal Protein-cry I AC, cry II AB). A crystalliane insecticidal protein that kills the insects.Hence cry-Genes have been introduced in plants to produce crystal proteins as Protoxin (inactive toxin), which is converted to toxins in alkaline medium (i.e. in the gut of insects) and cause death of the insect larva.
Protection of plants against nematodes –Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infects tobacco plants & reduces yield. Specific genes (DNA) from nematodes introduced into the plants using Agrobacterium tumifecians (soil bacteria). Genes produce sense and antisense complementary RNA. Act as dsRNA and initiates RNAi ( RNA interference) and silences the specific mRNA. Complementary RNA neutralizes the specific RNA of nematodes by a process called RNA Interference and parasite cannot live in transgenic host.
In medicine- genetically engineered insulin—
rDNA technology was applied in therapeutic application by generating genetically engineered insulin for man. In 1983, Eli Lilly, an American company prepared 2 DNA sequences coding for chains A & B.
Human insulin consists of two short Polypeptide chains A & B being linked by disulphide bridges.In man, Insulin secreted as Prohormone containing C peptides that is removed during maturation.
In rDNA technique, insulin could be generated by preparing two separate DNA sequences of A & B chain which are incorporated into plasmids of E. coli to produce insulin chains.
• Gene therapy involves correction of the gene defects in child or embryo.
• Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a kind of immuno-disorder caused by deletion of gene
coding for ADA.
• It can be cured by bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy.
• A functional ADA-cDNA(through Retrovirus) is introduced in lymphocyte culture for genetic infusion and transfered to the patient body for normal functioning.
Molecular diagnosis --
Early & accurate detection of diseases substituting conventional diagnostic tecniques may be done by following methods:
PCR (Polymerase chain reaction): Short stretches of pathogenic genome is amplified for detection of suspected AIDS, Cancer or genetic disorder.
ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) used to detect AIDS based on detection of antibodies produced against antigen of pathogen.
Animals with manipulated genes or a foreign gene to be expressed are called as transgenic animals. They are useful-
1. To know how genes contribute to development of disease.
Biropiracy -- Some organizations and multinational companies exploit or patent bioresources of other nations without proper authorization. Indian patent bill is there to prevent such unauthorized exploitation.
GEAC- For validity of GM research and the safety of introducing GM organism Three mark question
1) What is the main advantage of producing genetically engineered insulin?
Ans- i) Produces only A&B peptides ii) No C-Peptides produced iii)No need to remove CPeptides during maturation.
2) What are the advantages of Molecular diagnosis technique?
Ans- i) Accurate ii) disease can be detected at very early stage iii)Can be diagnosed even if the number of pathogens is very low.
3)What are the potential risks ( Three ) of using GM food?
Ans – Potential risks- i) Products of transgene - allergic or toxic ii) Cause damage to natural environment iii) Weeds also become resistant iv) Can endanger native species
4)What is hirudin? How do you get it?
Ans- Anti coagulant obtained from transgenic Brassica napus.
5) How does agro bacterium help to increase Tobacco production?
Ans –i) Introduction of Nematode specific gene.
ii)Production of dsRNA(Sense and anti- Sense)
iii)Silence specific mRNA.
6) Why do farmers face the problems in Agro chemical based farming?
Ans – i) Too expensive ii) Conventional breeding procedure do not ensure increased production.
7) Why should farmers in India cultivate GM crops?
Ans - Tolerant to stress,pest resistant,less post-harvest losses, increased mineral use efficiency.
Five mark question
1)Explain the steps involved in the production of genetically engineered insulin?
Ans- i) Human insulin consists of 51 amino acids arranged in chains of A and B bearing 21 and 30 a. a respectively interconnected by disulphide bridges.
Diagram- Maturation of proinsulin into insulin after removal of c- peptide
ii) Insulin synthesized as prohormone has extra c -peptide which is removed during maturation.
iii) In 1983 , Eli Lilly, American company prepared two DNA sequences similar to A and B chains of human insulin(humulin).
iv) Chain A and B extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds. Keywords of the chapter Genetically Modified Organism(GMO), Bt cotton, insecticidal proteins, cry genes, pest resistant plants, RNA interference(RNAi)/RNAsilencing, dsRNA, Genetically engineered insulin, gene therapy, ADA deficiency , c DNA, Molecular diagnosis, transgenic animals, Bio ethics, Genetic Engineering Approval Committee(GEAC), Bio piracy, Indian patent bill.
(HOTS) CHAPTER 12:
1.Name the disease in plants caused by Ti Plasmid?
Ans Crown gall disease.
2. What is the main objective of Gene therapy in biotechnological techniques?
Ans Gene therapy involves replacement of defective genes by normal genes.
3.Which organism is considered as Natural genetic engineer?
Ans Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
4.Which kind of bioweapon is most widely used ?
Ans Bacillus anthracis.
5.What is the main objective of herbicide resistant GM crop ?
Ans It effectively eliminates the weeds without involving manual labour .
6. From which species is human insulin commercially produced?
Ans Escherichia coli
7.Gene medicine refers to use of gene manipulation technology to ameliorate or
Ans even permanently cure diseases in human. Name the technique.
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