CBSE Class 12 Biology Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Notes Set A

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Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Class 12 Biology Revision Notes

Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Notes Class 12 Biology

Animal Breeding-objectives:

1.Improved growth rate.

2.Increased production

3. Improve desirable qualities.

4.Improved resistance to diseases

5.Improved resistance to adverse environmental conditions

Methods:

i).Inbreeding:-Breeding between same breed for 4-6 generations. Eg.- cows, buffaloes, poultry In breeding depression- continued in breeding reduces fertility even productivity. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression

ii) Outbreeding- breeding between unrelated animals of two types –

1.) Out crossing- mating within the same breed but not having ancestors.

2.) Crossbreeding- superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed to get better progency.e.g.- cows of inferior breed with superior bull. Hisardale- is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri Eves and Marano Rams.

3Interspecific hybridization- male and female animals of two different species are mated. E.g.- mule is crossbreed of male donkey and female horse.

4) Control breeding- it is done by artificial insemination and multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology (MOET)

(a)Artificial insemination- semen of superior male is collected and injected unto the reproductive tract of selected female. The spread of certain diseases can be controlled by this method.

(bMOET- Technique for herd improvement by successful production of hybrids.

i) Hormone(FSH) are administered to the cow for inducing follicular maturation and super ovulation.

ii)Cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg & is either mated with elite bull or artificially inseminated.

iii) Fertilised egg at 8-32 cell stage are recovered non-surgically & transferred to surrogate mother.

iv)IDone in cattle, sheep, rabbits etc.


Steps in Plant breeding:-

Collection of variability-Collection and preservation of all different wild varieties, species, relatives of cultivated species etc. are also called germplasm collection.

2.Evaluation and selection of parents-Germplasm is evaluated to identify plants with desirable traits.

3.Cross hybridization among the selected parents-Two plants having two desired characters are hybridized to get new hybrid having two desired characters.

4.Selection and testing of superior recombinants-Selection of the plants having desired character combinations.

5.Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars-Newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield, agronomic traits, disease resistance etc. and released into the market.

Green revolution - Crop production.

White revolution - Milk production

Blue revolution - Fish production

Biofortification-Breeding crops with higher levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals eg. Vit C rich bitter gourd, mustard, tomato; protein rich beans lablab etc.

SCP (Single cell protein )- Protein rich cell biomass from microbes such as bacteria, yeast, algae are used as alternative food.

Eg-Spirulina can be grown in waste water (from potato processing plant) to produce protein rich biomass treated as food.

Advantages : i) Provides protein rich food supplement in human diet

ii) Reduces pressure of conventional agricultural production iii)Use of Waste water reduces pollution leveliv) High rate of biomass production in large amount in short period.


Tissue culture-

Technique of in vitro regeneration of whole plant by growing any plant part called explant in culture medium under aseptic condition. includes following methods:

1.Callus culture: Cell division in explant form an unorganized mass of cell called callus.

2. Suspension culture: Involves small group of cells suspended in a liquid media.

3..Meristem Culture –Apical shoot meristem is used as explant & support multiple shoot development.

4.Embryo Culture:Excision of young embryos from developing seeds & culture in nutritional media.

5.Anther culture:Production of haploid plant species by desired anther cultured in suitable medium.

6. Protoplast culture and somatic hybridization-

In this method, hybridization of different species could produce variants of economic value as follows:

i) Isolation of desired single cells 

ii) Digestion of cell wall by pectinase & cellulase enzyme for exposure of protoplast

iii) Fusion of protoplast by Polyethylene glycol(PEG) iv) Hybrid protoplast culture resulting in desired variety of plant eg., Pomato is obtained by somatic hybrid of potato and tomato.

7.Micropropagation-

Tissue culture technique used for rapid vegetative multilication of ornamental plants and fruit trees by using small explants. Micropopagation is done by shoot meristem culture & somatic embryogeny. It results in genetically identical plants & used widely in forestry & floriculture.
8.Somaclonal variation-Genetic variation in plants regenerated from a single culture is used to develop several useful varieties eg., Short duration sugarcane, Rust resistant wheat.
Uses: a)Rapid clonal multiplication
b)Production of virus free plants
c)Production of transgenic plants
d)Germplasm collection

Questions

1 MARKS

Q1.Name two techniques involved in controlled breeding experiments.

Q2.What is blue and green revolution?

Q3. What is inbreeding depression?

Q4. What is ‘Heterosis’ or hybrid vigour?

Q5.Name the Indian variety of rice patented by an American company.

Q6.What is Pomato?

Q7 .Name the algae used as protein rich food.

Q8.Expand- MOET and SCP.

Q9.What is quarantine?

Q10.What is cultivar?

2 MARKS

Q1. What is Biofortification?

Q2.Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus free plants?

Q3.What is breed? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Q4.Define out-crossing? Suggest an advantage.

Q5.What is artificial insemination? What is its importance?

Q6. What are the differences between aqua and pisciculture?

Q7. What is animal husbandry?

Q8. What is bird flu?

Q9. Name the most common species of honey bees of India? What are the products from the honey bees?

Q10. What is germplasm? How it is maintained?

3 MARKS QUESTIONS

Q1.What does inbreeding mean? Suggest its advantages. What is the danger of inbreeding?

Q2.Name the methods employed in animal breeding. Which method is the best? Why?

Q3. Explain the procedure of MOET technique in cattle.

Q4. What is interspecific hybridization ? Give one example of crop in which it is practiced and mention one advantage.

Q5. What is cross-breeding ? What advantages does it have? Give an example

5 MARKS QUESTIONS

Q1. Explain the points that have to be considered for successful bee- keeping?

Q2. Write the scientific name of sugarcane grown in north and south India respectively. Mention their characteristic features. Mention the characteristic of the hybrid produced by crossing these two varieties.

Hint :North – Saccharumbarberi. South – Saccharumofficinarum . High yield ,thick stems , higher sugar content , ability to grow in both North and South India

Q 3. Describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Hint: Collection of variability, Evaluation and selection of parents, Cross hybridisation among the selected parents, Selection of testing of superior Recombinants, Testing , release and comercialisation of new cultivars

CBSE Class 12 Biology - Strategies for enhancement in food production


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Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
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Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
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Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
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Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
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Chapter 7 Evolution
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Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases
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Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement In Food Production
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CBSE Class 12 Biology Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Notes Set A
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Chapter 10 Microbes In Human Welfare
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CBSE Class 12 Biology Microbes In Human Welfare Notes Set B
Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes
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Chapter 12 Biotechnology and Its Application
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Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
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Chapter 14 Ecosystem
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Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
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Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
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