CBSE Class 12 Biology Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Notes Set A

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Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Class 12 Biology Revision Notes

Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Notes Class 12 Biology

Animal Breeding-objectives:

1.Improved growth rate.

2.Increased production

3. Improve desirable qualities.

4.Improved resistance to diseases

5.Improved resistance to adverse environmental conditions


i).Inbreeding:-Breeding between same breed for 4-6 generations. Eg.- cows, buffaloes, poultry In breeding depression- continued in breeding reduces fertility even productivity. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression

ii) Outbreeding- breeding between unrelated animals of two types –

1.) Out crossing- mating within the same breed but not having ancestors.

2.) Crossbreeding- superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed to get better progency.e.g.- cows of inferior breed with superior bull. Hisardale- is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri Eves and Marano Rams.

3Interspecific hybridization- male and female animals of two different species are mated. E.g.- mule is crossbreed of male donkey and female horse.

4) Control breeding- it is done by artificial insemination and multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology (MOET)

(a)Artificial insemination- semen of superior male is collected and injected unto the reproductive tract of selected female. The spread of certain diseases can be controlled by this method.

(bMOET- Technique for herd improvement by successful production of hybrids.

i) Hormone(FSH) are administered to the cow for inducing follicular maturation and super ovulation.

ii)Cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg & is either mated with elite bull or artificially inseminated.

iii) Fertilised egg at 8-32 cell stage are recovered non-surgically & transferred to surrogate mother.

iv)IDone in cattle, sheep, rabbits etc.

Steps in Plant breeding:-

Collection of variability-Collection and preservation of all different wild varieties, species, relatives of cultivated species etc. are also called germplasm collection.

2.Evaluation and selection of parents-Germplasm is evaluated to identify plants with desirable traits.

3.Cross hybridization among the selected parents-Two plants having two desired characters are hybridized to get new hybrid having two desired characters.

4.Selection and testing of superior recombinants-Selection of the plants having desired character combinations.

5.Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars-Newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield, agronomic traits, disease resistance etc. and released into the market.

Green revolution - Crop production.

White revolution - Milk production

Blue revolution - Fish production

Biofortification-Breeding crops with higher levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals eg. Vit C rich bitter gourd, mustard, tomato; protein rich beans lablab etc.

SCP (Single cell protein )- Protein rich cell biomass from microbes such as bacteria, yeast, algae are used as alternative food.

Eg-Spirulina can be grown in waste water (from potato processing plant) to produce protein rich biomass treated as food.

Advantages : i) Provides protein rich food supplement in human diet

ii) Reduces pressure of conventional agricultural production iii)Use of Waste water reduces pollution leveliv) High rate of biomass production in large amount in short period.

Tissue culture-

Technique of in vitro regeneration of whole plant by growing any plant part called explant in culture medium under aseptic condition. includes following methods:

1.Callus culture: Cell division in explant form an unorganized mass of cell called callus.

2. Suspension culture: Involves small group of cells suspended in a liquid media.

3..Meristem Culture –Apical shoot meristem is used as explant & support multiple shoot development.

4.Embryo Culture:Excision of young embryos from developing seeds & culture in nutritional media.

5.Anther culture:Production of haploid plant species by desired anther cultured in suitable medium.

6. Protoplast culture and somatic hybridization-

In this method, hybridization of different species could produce variants of economic value as follows:

i) Isolation of desired single cells 

ii) Digestion of cell wall by pectinase & cellulase enzyme for exposure of protoplast

iii) Fusion of protoplast by Polyethylene glycol(PEG) iv) Hybrid protoplast culture resulting in desired variety of plant eg., Pomato is obtained by somatic hybrid of potato and tomato.


Tissue culture technique used for rapid vegetative multilication of ornamental plants and fruit trees by using small explants. Micropopagation is done by shoot meristem culture & somatic embryogeny. It results in genetically identical plants & used widely in forestry & floriculture.
8.Somaclonal variation-Genetic variation in plants regenerated from a single culture is used to develop several useful varieties eg., Short duration sugarcane, Rust resistant wheat.
Uses: a)Rapid clonal multiplication
b)Production of virus free plants
c)Production of transgenic plants
d)Germplasm collection

MCQ Questions

Question…… is the agricultural practice of feeding, breeding and raising livestock. Choose the most appropriate word to fill in the blank.
(a) Animal husbandry
(b) Cattle improvement
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Cattle farming
Answer : A

Question. The term ‘breed’ refers to
(a) a group of animals not related by descent but similar in most characteristics
(b) a group of animals related by descent and similar in most characteristics
(c) a group of animals related by descent but have almost different characteristics
(d) a group of animals neither related by descent nor have similar characteristics
Answer : B

Question. The term ‘inbreeding’ refers to
(a) mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations
(b) mating of unrelated animals of the same breed
(c) mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors up to 4-6 generations
(d) superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed
Answer : A

Question. Animal husbandry includes
(a) fisheries
(b) poultry farming
(c) dairying
(d) All of these
Answer : D

Question. Crustacean fishery is connected with exploitation of
(a) oysters and crabs
(b) mussels and squids
(c) shell and cuttle fish
(d) crabs and prawn
Answer : D

Question. The management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption is called
(a) dairy farming
(b) poultry farming
(c) white revolution
(d) livestock improvement
Answer : A

Question. In dairy farm management
(a) livestock improvement is done
(b) milk yield and quality is improved
(c) regular inspection of animals
(d) All of the above
Answer : D

Question. Choose the correct option.
(a) More than 70% of the world livestock population is in India and China
(b) The contribution of India and china to the world farm produce is about 25%
(c) Important livestock of India are cattle and buffaloes
(d) All of the above
Answer : D

Question. Which of the following qualities is considered for the selection of good breeds?
(a) High yielding potential
(b) Resistance to diseases
(c) Breed with pureline
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer : D

Question. What measures should be taken for cattles, to realise the yield potential?
(a) They have to be housed well
(b) Feeding should be in scientific manner
(c) Hygienic milking, storage and transport of milk
(d) All of the above
Answer : D

Question. Which of the following birds are domesticated in poultry farm management?
(a) Chicken
(b) Ducks
(c) Turkey and geese
(d) All of these
Answer : D

Question. Which of the following points should be kept into consideration for management of poultry farm?
A. Selection of disease free and suitable breeds
B. Proper and safe farm conditions
C. Proper feed and water
D. Hygiene and healthcare
(a) A,B,C
(b) A,C,D
(c) A,B,C,D
(d) None of these
Answer : C

Question. Bird flu is a ………… disease.
(a) viral
(b) bacterial
(c) fungal
(d) algal
Answer : A

Question. (Image 14)
Identify improved breed shown in diagram.
(a) A–Jersey, B–Leghorn
(b) A–Surti, B–Sangamneri
(c) A–Marwari, B–Sirohi
(d) A–Beetal, B–Jamunapari
Answer : A

Question. An infectious bacterial disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheeps and goats is
(a) anthrax
(b) rinderpest
(c) tick fever
(d) necrosis
Answer : A

Question. Which of the following is an aim of animal breeding?
(a) Increasing the yield of animals
(b) Improving the desirable qualities of the produce
(c) Producing better looking animals
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer : D

Question. Homozygous purelines in cattle can be obtained by 
(a) mating of related individuals of same breed
(b) mating of unrelated individuals of same breed
(c) mating of indviduals of different breed
(d) mating of individuals of different species
Answer : A

Question. Suggest a way to overcome inbreeding depression.
(a) Selected animals should be mated with related superior animals of different breed
(b) Selected animals should be mated with unrelated superior animals of same breed
(c) Selected animals should be mated with related superior animals of same breed
(d) Selected animals should be mated with unrelated superior animals of different breed
Answer : B

Question. Hissardale is a new breed of …A… developed in Punjab by crossing …B… and …C… .Here A to C refers to
(a) A–sheep, B–Bikaneri ewes, C–Marino rams
(b) A–chicken, B–Dorking, C–Sussex
(c) A–chicken, B–Leghorn, C–Plymouth rock
(d) A–cow, B–Jersey, C–Brown Swiss
Answer : A

Question. Interspecific hybridisation is the mating of
(a) animals within same breed without having common ancestors
(b) two different related species
(c) superior males and females of different breeds
(d) more closely related individuals within same breed for 4-6 generations
Answer : B

Question. Livestock refers to
(a) pet animals
(b) poultry and pet animals
(c) domestic animals which are kept for use or profit
(d) None of the above
Answer : C

Question. The practices concerned with the improvement in animal husbandry include
(a) management of farm and farm animals
(b) management of animals and plants at a same place
(c) genetic engineering
(d) None of the above
Answer : A

Question. A mule is produced by
(a) cross-breeding
(b) outcrossing
(c) inbreeding
(d) interspecific hybridisation
Answer : D

Question. Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using
(a) interspecific hybridisation
(b) artificial insemination
(c) outcrossing
(d) intraspecific hybridisation
Answer : B

Question. MOET stands for
(a) Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer technology
(b) Multiple Ovary and Embryo Transfer technology
(c) Multiple Ovulation Embryo Test technology
(d) Method of Egg Transfer
Answer : A

Question. Where Taichung Native-1 was developed?
(a) Taraiva
(b) Tokyo
(c) Tallinn
(d) Taiwan
Answer : D

Question. Jaya and Ratna are varieties of
(a) maize
(b) wheat
(c) rice
(d) millet
Answer : C

Question. In MOET procedure, to induce follicular maturation and superovulation which of the following hormones are administered to the cow?
(a) Follicle stimulating hormone
(b) Progesterone
(c) Androgen
(d) Oxytocin
Answer : A

Question. Saccharum barberi and Saccharum officinarum are varieties of
(a) sugarcane
(b) maize
(c) wheat
(d) rice
Answer : A

Question. The process by which genetic variations are created through changes in the base sequences within genes is
(a) plant breeding
(b) interspecific hybridisation
(c) outcrossing
(d) mutation
Answer : D



Q1.Name two techniques involved in controlled breeding experiments.

Q2.What is blue and green revolution?

Q3. What is inbreeding depression?

Q4. What is ‘Heterosis’ or hybrid vigour?

Q5.Name the Indian variety of rice patented by an American company.

Q6.What is Pomato?

Q7 .Name the algae used as protein rich food.

Q8.Expand- MOET and SCP.

Q9.What is quarantine?

Q10.What is cultivar?


Q1. What is Biofortification?

Q2.Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus free plants?

Q3.What is breed? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Q4.Define out-crossing? Suggest an advantage.

Q5.What is artificial insemination? What is its importance?

Q6. What are the differences between aqua and pisciculture?

Q7. What is animal husbandry?

Q8. What is bird flu?

Q9. Name the most common species of honey bees of India? What are the products from the honey bees?

Q10. What is germplasm? How it is maintained?


Q1.What does inbreeding mean? Suggest its advantages. What is the danger of inbreeding?

Q2.Name the methods employed in animal breeding. Which method is the best? Why?

Q3. Explain the procedure of MOET technique in cattle.

Q4. What is interspecific hybridization ? Give one example of crop in which it is practiced and mention one advantage.

Q5. What is cross-breeding ? What advantages does it have? Give an example


Q1. Explain the points that have to be considered for successful bee- keeping?

Q2. Write the scientific name of sugarcane grown in north and south India respectively. Mention their characteristic features. Mention the characteristic of the hybrid produced by crossing these two varieties.

Hint :North – Saccharumbarberi. South – Saccharumofficinarum . High yield ,thick stems , higher sugar content , ability to grow in both North and South India

Q 3. Describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Hint: Collection of variability, Evaluation and selection of parents, Cross hybridisation among the selected parents, Selection of testing of superior Recombinants, Testing , release and comercialisation of new cultivars

CBSE Class 12 Biology - Strategies for enhancement in food production

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