Worksheet for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem
Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for Chapter 14 Ecosystem in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 12 Biology Worksheet for Chapter 14 Ecosystem
1 Differentiate between a detritivore and a decomposer giving an example of each.
2 Expand PAR
3 Define climax community.
4 Identify the pioneer species of xerarch and hydrarch succession.
5 List the steps involved in decomposition process.
6 What I ecological succession? Write different stages of xerarch succession.
7 hat is primary productivity? How is it different from Net Primary Productivity.
9 Name the pioneer and the climax species in a water body. Mention the changes observed in the biomass and the biodiversity of the successive seral communities developing in the water body.
10 Name the pioneer species on a barren rock. How do they help in establishing the next type of vegetation? Mention the type of climax community that will ultimately get established?
11 Construct an ideal pyramid of energy when 1,00,000 joules of sunlight is available. Label all its trophic levels.
12 Construct a pyramid of biomass starting with phytoplanktons. Label 3 trophic levels. Is the pyramid upright or inverted? Why?
13 Draw and complete the following model of carbon cycle filling a, b, c, d, e and f
Important Questions for NCERT Class 12 Biology Ecosystem
Question. Which of the following regulate the rate of release of nutrients into atmosphere
(c) pH and Temperature
(d) All the above
Answer : D
Question. In net primary productivity of whole biosphere what is the contribution of oceans in billion ton ?
Answer : D
Question. What percentage of carbon constitute the dry weight of organisms
(a) 49 %
(b) 71 %
(c) 30 %
(d) 20 %
Answer : A
Question. Leaching is one of the important step of decomposition. During leaching, which of the following nutrient go down into the soil horizon ?
(a) Water soluble inorganic substance
(b) Water insoluble inorganic substances
(c) Water soluble organic substances
(d) Both water soluble organic substances and inorganic substances
Answer : D
Question. Which of the following chemical will not reduce the rate of decomposition of detritus
Answer : D
Question. How much amount of incident solar radiation and PAR is capture as GPP respectively :-
(a) 1-5% and 2-10%
(b) 2-10% and 1-5%
(c) 1-4% and 2-8%
(d) 0.4-4% and 0.8-8%
Answer : A
Question. The components of ecosystem are seen to function as an unit, when we consider which of the folloiwng aspect
(a) Productivity and decomposition
(b) Decomposition and energy flow
(c) Productivity and energy flow
(d) Productivity, decomposition, energy flow and nutrient cycling
Answer : D
Ques. Energy transfer from one trophic level to other, in a food chain, is
Ques. In a terrestrial ecosystem such as forest, maximum energy is in which trophic level?
Ques. The 10% energy transfer law of food chain was given by
Ques. In a biotic community, the primary consumers are
Ques. The dominant second trophic level, in a lake ecosystem, is
Ques. Food chain in which microorganisms breakdown the food formed by primary producers is
(a) parasitic food chain
(b) detritus food chain
(c) consumer food chain
(d) predator food chain.
Ques. Pick up the correct food chain.
(a) Grass → Chameleon → Insect → Bird
(b) Grass → Fox → Rabbit → Bird
(c) Phytoplankton → Zooplankton → Fish
(d) Fallen leaves → Bacteria → Insect larvae
Ques. Upper part of sea/aquatic ecosystem contains
(c) plankton and nekton
Ques. What is true of ecosystem?
(a) Primary consumers are least dependent upon producers.
(b) Primary consumers out-number producers.
(c) Producers are more than primary consumers.
(d) Secondary consumers are the largest and most powerful.
Ques. In an ecosystem, which one shows one-way passage?
(a) Free energy
Ques. Match the trophic levels with their correct species examples in grassland ecosystem.
(A) Fourth trophic level (i) Crow
(B) Second trophic level (ii) Vulture
(C) First trophic level (iii) Rabbit
(D) Third trophic level (iv) Grass
Select the correct option.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(a) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(b) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)
(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
Ques. Which of the following ecological pyramids is generally inverted?
(a) Pyramid of biomass in a sea
(b) Pyramid of numbers in grassland
(c) Pyramid of energy
(d) Pyramid of biomass in a forest
Ques. What type of ecological pyramid would be obtained with the following data?
Secondary consumer : 120 g
Primary consumer : 60 g
Primary producer : 10 g
(a) Inverted pyramid of biomass
(b) Pyramid of energy
(c) Upright pyramid of numbers
(d) Upright pyramid of biomass
Ques. Which ecosystem has the maximum biomass?
(a) Grassland ecosystem
(b) Pond ecosystem
(c) Lake ecosystem
(d) Forest ecosystem
Ques. The upright pyramid of number is absent in
Ques. Which one of the following statements for the pyramid of energy is incorrect ?
(a) Its base is broad.
(b) It shows energy content of different trophic level organisms.
(c) It is inverted in shape.
(d) It is upright in shape.
Ques. Which one of the following is not used for construction of ecological pyramids?
(a) Fresh weight
(b) Dry weight
(c) Number of individuals
(d) Rate of energy flow
Question. -------------and his colleges have very recently tried to put price tags on Nature‘s life support services.
(a) Robert Constanza
(b) Robert May
(c) Paul Erlich
(d) Alexander Von Humbolt
Question. Pyramid of -------------- is always upright, can never be inverted.
(d) None of these
Question. In a particular climatic condition, decomposition rate is slower if detritus is rich in -----------
(a) Nitrogen and sugar
(b) Lignin and chitin
(c) Sugar and chitin
(d) None of these
Question. Based on the source of their nutrition or food, organisms occupy a specific place in the food chain is known as ---------.
(a) Trophic level
(c) Ecological pyramid
(d) None of these
Question. If we completely remove the -----------from an ecosystem, their functioning will be adversely affected because Mineral movement will be blocked.
Question. Which of the following is a man-made ecosystem
Question. Gross primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate of production of organic matter by ---------------
(d) None of these
Question. Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels represents:
(b) Standing crop
(d) Trophic level
Question. Approximately how much of the solar energy that falls on the leaves of a plant is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis?
(a) Less than 1%
(b) 30 %
(c) 2-10 %
Question.------------- are not given any place in ecological pyramids even though they play an important role in the ecosystem.
(d) Abiotic factors
Assertion - Reason Type Questions:
A. If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
B. If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
C. If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
D. If both Assertion and Reason are false.
Question. Assertion: Most food chains and webs have only about four or five trophic levels.
Reason: Trophic efficiencies are generally only about 10% in different ecosystems.
Question. Assertion: Some aquatic ecosystems have inverted biomass pyramids.
Reason: The pyramid of energy is also inverted in such cases.
Question. Assertion: Stratification helps in accommodation of a large number and types of plants in the same area.
Reason: It is the occurrence of horizontal zonation in the ecosystem.
Question. Assertion: Most of an ecosystem‘s production is eventually consumed by detritivores and decomposers.
Reason: Energy is said to flow through, not cycle within the ecosystem.
Question. Assertion: There is no limitation of the number of trophic levels in a detritus food chain.
Reason: The transfer of energy between successive trophic levels in a detritus food chain does not follow 10% rule.
Question. Assertion: Net primary productivity is higher in warm climates than cold ones.
Reason: The limit on a community‘s productivity is determined ultimately by the amount of sunlight it receives.
Question. Assertion: Strongly vertically stratified habitats are very stable ecosystems.
Reason: Through the formation of different layers a given habitat is better utilized.
Question. Assertion: Ecological pyramids of biomass are generally inverted in sea.
Reason: Biomass of fishes far exceeds that of phytoplankton.
Question. Assertion: Saprophytes play a vital role in ecosystem.
Reason: Saprophytes are accorded the highest trophic levels in a food chain or food web.
Question. Assertion: Both agriculture and aquaculture are man – maintained ecosystems.
Reason: All biotic and abiotic factors are managed by humans in these ecosystems.
Question. Assertion: Pyramid of biomass is always upright for tree ecosystem.
Reason: Total biomass of a tree in a specific area is more than that of herbivores.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. What does secondary productivity in an ecosystem indicate?
Answer: The rate of assimilation and formation of new organic matter by consumers is called secondary productivity.
Question. How does the chemical composition of detritus affect the rate of decomposition in a particular climatic condition?
Answer: The rate of decomposition is slower if the detritus is rich in lignin and chitin and quicker if the detritus is rich in nitrogen and water-soluble substances like sugar.
Question. Citing Lake as an example of a simple aquatic ecosystem, interpret how various functions of this ecosystem are carried out.
Answer: i) productivity: conversion of inorganic into organic material with the help of solar energy by the autotrophs.
ii) energy flow: unidirectional moment of energy towards higher trophic level.
iii) decomposition: fragmentation, leaching, catabolism, humification, mineralisation by bacteria fungi.
Question. What do you mean by standing crop?
Answer: The standing crop is measured as the mass of living organisms or the number in a unit area.
Question. In a food chain a trophic level represents a functional level not a species. Explain.
Answer: A given species may occupy more than one trophic level in the same ecosystem at a given time, if the function of the mode of nutrition of species changes it position shall change in the trophic levels. The same species can be at primary consumer level in one food chain and at secondary consumer level in another food chain in the same ecosystem at the given time.
Question. Why is the length of a food chain in an ecosystem generally limited to 3 -- 4 trophic levels? Explain with an example.
Answer: The amount of energy flow decreases with successive trophic levels as only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next successive trophic level. The energy is lost in the form of respiration and other vital activities to maintain life. If more trophic levels are present the residual energy will be limited and decreased to such an extent that it cannot further support any trophic level by the flow of energy. so, the food chain is generally limited to 3-- 4 trophic levels only.
Question. Primary productivity varies in different types of an ecosystem why?
Answer: Primary productivity depends on the plant species in habiting a particular area, it also depends on the variety of environment factors, availability of nutrients and photosynthetic capacity of a plants. Therefore, it varies from one ecosystem to another ecosystem.
Question. What are the limitations of ecological pyramids in the study of ecosystem?
Answer: The ecological pyramid assumes a simple food chain and does not accommodate food webs. Thereby, it does not consider the fact that species may belong to two or more tropic levels at a time. Also, saprophytes despite their vital role in ecosystem are given no place in the ecological pyramid.
Question. It is possible that a species may occupy more than one trophic level in the same ecosystem at the same time. Explain with the help of one example.
Answer: For example, sparrow is an omnivore. When it eats seeds fruits or any other plant product it occupies a primary trophic level where as when it eats worms and any other insect it occupies the secondary trophic level thus it occupies more than one trophic level in the same ecosystem.
Question. State the difference between the first trophic levels of the detritus food chain and grazing food chain.
First Trophic Level of Detritus Food Chain
(i) Decomposers are the first trophic level.
(ii) They break down the complex organic matter into simpler form by secreting enzymes.
First Trophic Level of Grazing Food Chain
(i) Producers are the first trophic level.
(ii) They prepare complex organic molecules from simple inorganic material with the help of sunlight.
Question. Explain the steps of decomposition which operates simultaneously on the detritus.
Answer: The steps of decomposition which operate simultaneously on detritus are fragmentation, leaching and catabolism.
(a) Fragmentation: the process of breaking down of the detritus in the smaller particles is called fragmentation.
(b) Leaching: the process by which water soluble in organic nutrients go down into the soil and get precipitated as unavailable salt.
(c) Catabolism: the enzymatic process by which degraded detritus is converted into simple inorganic substance is called catabolism.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. What is primary productivity? Give brief description of factors that affect primary productivity.
Answer: Primary productivity is the rate of synthesis of biomass by producers per unit time per unit area through the process of photosynthesis.
Factors affecting primary productivity:
This varies from ecosystem to ecosystem. This is due to various factors that listed below:
i)The plant species inhabiting a particular area.
ii)Various environmental factors also contribute in affecting primary productivity. They are,
2 Light: Sunlight is the ultimate source of energy. Due to the less availability of light in an aquatic ecosystem, here productivity is less than terrestrial ecosystem. Maximum light is available in tropics and poles receives the minimum light. Therefore, productivity is comparatively low on poles.
3 Temperature: It regulates the activity of an enzyme, so optimum temperature is required for proper functioning of an enzyme.
Moisture: Rain/humidity increases the productivity of the ecosystem, but it tends to decrease with the scarcity of water. So, deserts have the lowest primary productivity as soil is deficient in moisture.
4 Nutrients availability: Nutrients are essential for the growth of producers. Thus, higher the nutrients, greater the primary productivity.
Question. What is an ecological pyramid? Compare the pyramid of energy, pyramid of biomass and pyramid of number.
Answer: The relation between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can be graphically represented in the form of a pyramid is called ecological pyramid.
Ecological pyramids are of 3 kinds
(c) Pyramid of number
(d) Pyramid of biomass
(c) Pyramid of energy.
Pyramid of number: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can be represented in the form of a pyramid in terms of number is called pyramid of number.
Pyramid of biomass: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can be represented in the form of pyramid in terms of biomass is called pyramid of biomass. It can be upright or inverted.
Pyramid of energy: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can be represented in the form of pyramid in terms of flow of energy called pyramid of energy. It is always upright as energy is lost as heat at each step.
Question. a) Taking an example of a small pond, explain how the four components of an ecosystem function as unit?
b) Name the type of food chain that exists in a pond.
Answer: a) Pond ecosystem: Pond is an example of an aquatic ecosystem, it is fairly a self-sustainable unit. A pond is a shallow water body in which all the four basic components of an ecosystem are well exhibited.
α The abiotic component is the water with all the dissolved inorganic and organic substances and the rich soil deposits at the bottom of the pond. The solar input, the cycle of temperature, day-length and other climatic conditions regulate the rate of function of the entire pond.
β The autotrophic biotic components include the phytoplankton, some algae and the floating submerged and marginal plants found at the edges.
χ The consumers are represented by the zooplankton, the free swimming and bottom dwelling forms.
δ The decomposers are the fungi, bacteria and flagellates especially abundant in the bottom of the pond.
This system performs all the functions of any ecosystem and of the biosphere as a whole. ie, conversion of inorganic into organic material with the help of radiant energy of the sun by the autotrophs, consumption of the autotrophs by heterotrophs, decomposition and mineralization of the dead matter to release them back or reuse by the autotrophs etc These events are repeated over and over again. There is unidirectional movement of energy towards higher trophic levels and its dissipation and loss as heat to the environment.
b) Grazing food chain.
Diagram Based & Case Based Questions:
1. Organisms in an ecosystem acquire energy in a variety of ways, which is transferred between trophic levels as the energy flows from the bottom to the top of the food web, with energy being lost at each transfer. The efficiency of these transfers is important for understanding the different behaviours and eating habits of warmblooded versus cold-blooded animals. Modelling of ecosystem energy is best done with ecological pyramids of energy, although other ecological pyramids provide other vital information about ecosystem structure.
Question. The essence of second law of thermodynamics is ‗no form of energy can fully convert into another form of energy‘. Analyse this statement with reference to energy flow.
Answer: During energy flow some amount of energy is lost in the form of heat.
Question. 'Pyramid of energy is always upright‘. Substantiate this statement.
Answer: Pyramid of energy is always upright, can never be inverted, because when energy flows from a particular trophic level to the next trophic level, some energy is always lost as heat at each step.
2. Observe the diagram and answer the following questions
Question. How temperature and moisture content influence decomposition?
Answer: Warm and moist environment favour decomposition whereas low temperature and anaerobiosis inhibit decomposition resulting in build-up of organic materials.
Question. List out the stages in decomposition.
Answer: The stages in decomposition are, a. Fragmentation b. Leaching c. Catabolism d. Humification e. Mineralisation.
Question. Shell of a prawn and a piece of wood are undergoing decomposition. Compare their rate of decomposition.
Answer: Shell of prawn is composed of chitin but wood predominantly contains cellulose. So, rate of decomposition is lower i shell of prawn.
3. Analyse the graph and answer the following questions
Question. Despite occupying about 70 percent of the surface, the productivity of the oceans are only 55 billion tons.
Answer: The various reasons include, Non-uniformity in the availability of sunlight.
Question. How GPP and NPP is related with respiration?
Answer: Non-availability of sufficient minerals.
Size of producers.
Question. List out the reasons for the variations in productivity in different ecosystems.
Answer: Primary productivity depends on,
a. The plant species inhabiting a particular area.
b. Environmental factors.
c. Availability of nutrients.
d. Photosynthetic capacity of plants.
Please click the link below to download full pdf file for CBSE Class 12 Biology Ecosystem (2).
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