NCERT Class 12 Heritage Craft Design and Development

NCERT Class 12 Heritage Craft Design and Development.Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online). 


THE twenty-first century has brought with it accelerated change in every sphere of life, dependency on machines and excessive consumption of natural resources in a manner that is no longer sustainable. In the past the crafts sector had been rejected by many as an unviable economic activity for the twenty-first century. Artisans still mak e up tw enty million of India’s working population. Therefore this sector has to be developed in such a way so as to offer sustainable employmen t to millio ns of skilled artisan s. Crafts producers cannot be economically viable unless their p ro d u c t i s m a rk e t a b l e . T h e p ro d u c t c a n o n l y b e marketable if it is attractive to the consumer, i.e., if the traditional skill is adapted and designed to suit contemporary consumer tastes and needs. Design does  not mean making pretty patterns—it lies in matching a technique with a function.

 In the field of traditional craft these two aspects of design and development are not always synonymous; design can lead to development, and development should b e d e s ig n e d . H o w ev e r in th e fie ld o f d e si g n an d development a conflict may arise between function and responsibility. Whose creativity will be expressed—the developer’s, the designer’s or the craftsperson’s? Who is  the client—the consumer, who wants an unusual andexciting product at the most competitive price; or the crafts community who needs a market for its products as similar to the traditional one as possible, so that it does not need constant alien design interventions, or is at conflict with the social, aesthetic and cultural roots from which it has grown? The crafts community has several priorities such as food, clothing, shelter, education, health and economic stability. The craft development sector needs to b sensitive to these very real con cerns of the craftscommunity.

Therefore, craftspeople must be involved in every aspect of design and production and understand the u sag e o f th e pro d u ct they are makin g . V o lun tary agencies or designers must also understand and study the craft, the product and the market they are trying to enter.


In Ancient India, every individual had an implicitly defined role in society, ordained by birth. Craftsmanship was a heritage that evolved over centuries of arduous apprenticeship in chhandomaya (the rules of rhythm, balance, proportion, harmony and skill), controlled and protected by the structure and laws of the guild. In the guild the master craftsman, the raw apprentice and the skilled but uninspired jobsman all had a place and purpose. Today’s craftsperson has to be all things in one, including his/her own entrepreneur. The craftsperson had the status of an artist. As a member of a society with strict rules and hierarchies, b o th w ith in th e g u ild an d th e o u tsid e w o rld , th e community and its products were protected, and the quality was controlled. Patrons were well known to the artists, customers were close at hand, their lifestyles not too markedly different from the artists’. Whether the craftsperson’s skills provided simple village wares or jewelled artefacts for the temple or sultan, it was asupportive inter-dependency based on a mutual need, understanding and appreciation. The craftsperson was his/her ow n designer and the embellishments came only after the shape was p e rfe c t e d t o t h e fu n c t i o n . T h e a e s t h e t i c a n d t h e practical blended in a natural rather than artificially imposed harmony.


Today most craftspeople practising traditional skills are vy in g w ith mach ines, comp etitive mark ets, massp ro d u ce d o b ject s o r co n s umers’ craze fo r fo re ig n fashions, and are no longer protected by guilds or the enlightened, hands-on patronage of courts or religious institutions. Crafts communities are increasingly faced w ith th e p ro b lems o f d imin i sh in g o rd ers an d th e debasement of their craft. Crafts communities are making products for lifestyles remote from their own, and selling them in alien and highly competitive markets. Their own lives and tastes have suffered major transformations alienating them further from their skills and products. A traditional jootimaker may still embroider golden peacocks on a pair of shoes, but he himself will probably be wearing pink plastic sandals! Consequently, craft has degenerated today. For instance, the metal diya, a traditional ritual object of worship has been turned into an ash tray that sells on the pavement for just ten rupees.


1. Develop an integrated plan to raise the standard of living of a particular crafts community in your area.

2. Why are design and development so important for the survival of the crafts sector?

3. Develop a strategy to promote craft products for the growing ‘Bollywood’ industry.

4. Enterprising entrepreneurs are reaching out to global markets through innovations. For example, three shops in Chennai supply Bharatanatyam dance accessories to the growing number of dancers around the world. As an entrepreneur o  a craft production and marketing unit, outline your dreamproject.

5. Research ‘Needs and Requirements of Contemporary Life’. How can crafts products be designed and marketed to meet those requirements?

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Heritage Craft Design and Development



Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more Other Subjects Study Material

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

Mathematical Literacy Free Practice Book for Students

With a larger goal to promote 21st century skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, the Central Board of Secondary Education has shared a Mathematical Literacy: Practice Book for Students. This Work Book is designed to allow learners of classes 7th to 10th...

Five Tips for Brisk and Effective Revision for School and Board Examinations

The intend of this article is to present before you the 5 most efficient tips to facilitate the students to revise the entire course for the Annual School and Board Examination.  We are moving towards the upcoming examinations, almost all the academic institutions of...

Role of Word Limit in Written CBSE Examination

The intend of this article is to let us know the significance of writing within the prescribed word limit while attempting the CBSE Board Examination. Every single question in the board examination has a pre-specified word limit and every student needs to understand...

Gandhiji Quiz by CBSE

CBSE has launched a Quiz on Mahatma Gandhi. The quiz portal can be accessed on Discover Gandhi portal at: DIKSHA platform ( and the Discover Gandhi mobile App which can be easily downloaded from Google Play Store on...

Ganga Utsav 2020 organized by NMCG

The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is organising the annual ‘Ganga Utsav’ on November 2nd , 3rd & 4th, 2020 on a virtual platform. The Utsav will involve storytelling, folklores, & dialogues with eminent personalities, quizzes, display of traditional...

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge (AGC) has been initiated by the CBSE Board to enhance mathematical abilities among students in the year 2019. In order to reach out to maximum students across the country, the Board will host the Aryabhata Ganit Challenge on DIKSHA platform...

Studies Today