CBSE Class 12 Economics Consumers Equilibrium

CBSE Class 12 Economics-Consumers Equilibrium. Students can download the specific chapters from the CBSE and NCERT text books from Please refer to the attached file to access the chapters. The books and specific chapters have been collected by the tutors on studiestoday for the benefit of CBSE students. They can access these chapters anywhere and use them for their studies.




A consumer is one who buys goods and services for satisfaction of wants. The objective of a consumer is to get maximum satisfaction from spending his income on various goods and services, given prices.

We start with a simple example. Suppose a consumer wants to buy a commodity. How much of it should he buy? One of the approaches used for getting an answer to this question is 'utility' analysis. Before using this approach, we would like to familiarize ourselves with some basic concepts used in this approach,


The term utility refers to the want satisfying power of a commodity. Commodity will possess utility only if it satisfies a want. Utility differs from person to person, place to place, and time to time. Marginal Utility is the utility derived from the last unit of a commodity purchased. It can also be defined as the addition to the total utility when one more unit of the commodity is consumed. Total Utility is the sum of the utilities of all the units consumed.

As we consume more units of a commodity, each successive unit consumed gives lesser and lesser satisfaction, that is marginal utility diminishes. It is termed as the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.

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