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We learnt about writing speeches in class XI. Let us review what we learnt. Speeches present a point of view with the help of examples, illustrative points and quotes. They come close to essays in information. The content of speeches is presented clearly, in a language suited to the target audience. Speeches tend to be convincing and persuasive. Effective delivery is the hallmark of a successful speech.
An effective speech is usually divided into basic units: As the introduction comes first, its aim is to catch the interest and attention of the audience as well as provide the specific purpose or objectives of the speech. The body consists of main points and supporting material, and as such, is the place where you discuss your message in depth. The conclusion, the third and the last section of the speech, is the place to signal that the end is near, to summarize the material and to leave the audience with something worthwhile and memorable.
August 8, 1942
1. Before you discuss the resolution, let me place before you one or two things, I want you to understand two things very clearly and to consider them from the same point of view from which I am placing them before you. I ask you to consider it from my point of view, because if you approve of it, you will be enjoined to carry out all I say. It will be a great responsibility. There are people who ask me
Activity 1 : a)Read the following speech by Mahatma Gandhi and mark the whether, I am the same man that I was in 1920, or whether there has been any
change in me. You are right in asking that question.
2. Let me, however, hasten to assure that I am the same Gandhi as I was in 1920. I have not changed in any fundamental respect. I attach the same importance to non-violence that I did then. If at all, my emphasis on it has grown stronger. There is no real contradiction between the present resolution and my previous writings and utterances.
3. Occasions like the present do not occur in everybody's and but rarely in anybody's life. I want to know and feel that there is nothing but purest 'Ahimsa' in all that I am saying and doing today. The draft Resolution of the Working Committee is based on Ahimsa, the contemplated struggle similarly has its own roots in Ahimsa. If therefore, there is any among you who have lost faith in Ahimsa or is wearied of it let him not vote for this resolution.
4. Let me explain my position clearly, God had vouchsafed to me a priceless gift in the weapon of Ahimsa. I and my Ahimsa are on our train today. If in the present crisis when the earth is being scorched by the flames of Himsa and crying for deliverance, I failed to make use of the God given talent, God will not forgive me and I shall be judged wrongly of the great gift. I must act now. I may not hesitate and merely look on when Russia and China are threatened.
5. Ours is a drive not for power, but purely a non-violent fight for India's Independence. In a violent struggle, a successful general has been often known to affect a military coup and to set up a dictatorship. A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country. The power, when it comes, will belong to the people of India.
6. I know how imperfect our Ahimsa is and how far away we are still from the ideal, but in Ahimsa there is no final failure or defeat. I have faith, therefore, if in spite of our shortcomings, the big things do happen, it will be because God wanted to help us by crowning with success our silent, unremitting Sadhana for the last twenty-two years.
7. I believe that in the history of the world, there has been a more genuinely democratic struggle for freedom than ours. I read Carlyle's French Resolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me something about the Russian Revolution. But it is my conviction that inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they failed to realize the democratic ideal. In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the difference between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.
8. Then, there is the question of your attitude towards the British. I have noticed that there is hatred towards the British among the people. The people say they are disgusted with their behaviour. The people make no distinction between British imperialism and the British people. To them, the two are one, this hatred would even make them welcome the Japanese. It is most dangerous. It means that they will exchange one slavery for another. We must get rid of this feeling.
Our quarrel is not with the British people, we fight with their imperialism. Their proposal for the withdrawal of British Power did not come out of anger. It came to enable India to play its due part at the present critical juncture. We cannot evoke the true spirit of sacrifice and valour, so long as we are not free. I know the British government will not be able to withhold freedom from us, when we have made enough self-sacrifice. We must, therefore, purge ourselves of hatred. Speaking for myself, I can say that I have never felt any hatred.
As a matter of fact, I feel myself to be greater friend of British now than even before. One reason that they are today in distress. My very friendship, therefore, demands that I should try to save them from their mistakes. As I view the situation, they are on the brink of an abyss. It, therefore, becomes my duty to warn them of their danger even though it may, for the time being, anger them to the point of cutting off the friendly hand that is stretched out to help them. People may laugh, nevertheless that is my claim. At a time when I may have to launch the biggest struggle of my life, I may not harbour hatred against anybody.
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