CBSE Class 12 Economics-National Income

CBSE Class 12 Economics-National Income. Students can download the specific chapters from the CBSE and NCERT text books from Please refer to the attached file to access the chapters. The books and specific chapters have been collected by the tutors on studiestoday for the benefit of CBSE students. They can access these chapters anywhere and use them for their studies.





National income accounting is a branch of macroeconomics of which estimation of national income and related aggregates is a part. National income, or for that matter any aggregate related to it, is a measure of the value of production activity of a country. But, production activity where and by whom? Is it on the territory of the country? Or, is it by those who live in the territory? In fact it is both. This raises further question. What is the scope of territory? Is it simply political frontiers? Or, is it something else? Who are those who live in the territory? Is it simply citizens? Or, it is something else. The answer to these questions leads us to the concepts of (i) economic territory and (ii) resident. The two have an important bearing on the estimation of national income aggregates. How? We will explain it a little later.


The first thing to note is that economic territory of a country is not simply political frontiers of that country. The two may have common elements, but still they are conceptually different. Let us first see how it is defined. According to the United Nations : Economic territory is the geographical territory administered by a government within which persons, goods and capital circulate freely. The above definition is based on the criterion “freedom of circulation of persons, goods and capital”.

Clearly, those parts of the political frontiers of a country where the government of that, country does not enjoy the above “freedom” are not to be included in economic territory of that country. One example is embassies. Government of India does not enjoy the above freedom in the foreign embassies located within India. So, these are not treated as a part of economic territory of India. They are treated as part of the economic territories of their respective countries. For example the U.S. embassy in India is a part of economic territory of the U.S.A. Similarly, the Indian embassy in Washington is a part of economic territory of India.


Based on ‘freedom’ criterion, the scope of economic territory is defined to cover:

(i) Political frontiers including territorial waters and air space.

(ii) Embassies, consulates, military bases, etc located abroad,but excluding those located within the political frontiers.

(iii) Ships, aircrafts etc, operated by the residents between two or more countries

(iv) Fishing vessels, oil and natural gas rigs, etc operated by the residents in the international waters or other areas over which the country enjoys the exclusive rights or jurisdiction. 


National income and related aggregates are basically measures of production activity. There are two categories of national income aggregates : domestic and national, or domestic product and national product. Production activity of the production units located within the economic territory is domestic product. Gross domestic product, net domestic product are some examples. We will learn more about the implications after studying the concept of resident.



Note that citizen and resident are two different terms. This does not mean that a citizen is not a resident, and a resident not a citizen. A person can be a citizen as well as a resident, but it is not necessary that a citizen of a country is necessarily the resident of that country. A person can be a citizen of one country and at the same time a resident of another country. For example a NRI, Non-resident Indian. A NRI is citizen of India but a resident of the country in which he lives. Citizenship is basically a legal concept based on the place of birth of the person or some legal provisions allowing a person to become a citizen. On the other hand residentship is basically an economic concept based on the

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