Read and download CBSE Class 12 Economics National Income in NCERT book for Class 12 Other Subjects. You can download latest NCERT eBooks chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Other Subjects textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Other Subjects to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
NCERT Book for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income
Class 12 Other Subjects students should refer to the following NCERT Book National Income in Class 12. This NCERT Book for Class 12 Other Subjects will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
National Income NCERT Book Class 12
PART B : INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS
UNIT 6 - NATIONAL INCOME AND RELATED AGGREGATES SOME CONCEPTS
CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC TERRITORY
National income accounting is a branch of macroeconomics of which estimation of national income and related aggregates is a part. National income, or for that matter any aggregate related to it, is a measure of the value of production activity of a country. But, production activity where and by whom? Is it on the territory of the country? Or, is it by those who live in the territory? In fact it is both. This raises further question. What is the scope of territory? Is it simply political frontiers? Or, is it something else? Who are those who live in the territory? Is it simply citizens? Or, it is something else. The answer to these questions leads us to the concepts of (i) economic territory and (ii) resident. The two have an important bearing on the estimation of national income aggregates. How? We will explain it a little later.
The first thing to note is that economic territory of a country is not simply political frontiers of that country. The two may have common elements, but still they are conceptually different. Let us first see how it is defined. According to the United Nations : Economic territory is the geographical territory administered by a government within which persons, goods and capital circulate freely. The above definition is based on the criterion “freedom of circulation of persons, goods and capital”.
Clearly, those parts of the political frontiers of a country where the government of that, country does not enjoy the above “freedom” are not to be included in economic territory of that country. One example is embassies. Government of India does not enjoy the above freedom in the foreign embassies located within India. So, these are not treated as a part of economic territory of India. They are treated as part of the economic territories of their respective countries. For example the U.S. embassy in India is a part of economic territory of the U.S.A. Similarly, the Indian embassy in Washington is a part of economic territory of India.
Based on ‘freedom’ criterion, the scope of economic territory is defined to cover:
(i) Political frontiers including territorial waters and air space.
(ii) Embassies, consulates, military bases, etc located abroad,but excluding those located within the political frontiers.
(iii) Ships, aircrafts etc, operated by the residents between two or more countries
(iv) Fishing vessels, oil and natural gas rigs, etc operated by the residents in the international waters or other areas over which the country enjoys the exclusive rights or jurisdiction.
National income and related aggregates are basically measures of production activity. There are two categories of national income aggregates : domestic and national, or domestic product and national product. Production activity of the production units located within the economic territory is domestic product. Gross domestic product, net domestic product are some examples. We will learn more about the implications after studying the concept of resident.
CONCEPT OF RESIDENT
Note that citizen and resident are two different terms. This does not mean that a citizen is not a resident, and a resident not a citizen. A person can be a citizen as well as a resident, but it is not necessary that a citizen of a country is necessarily the resident of that country. A person can be a citizen of one country and at the same time a resident of another country. For example a NRI, Non-resident Indian. A NRI is citizen of India but a resident of the country in which he lives. Citizenship is basically a legal concept based on the place of birth of the person or some legal provisions allowing a person to become a citizen. On the other hand residentship is basically an economic concept based on the
Please refer to the link below for - CBSE Class 12 Economics-National Income
Other Subjects NCERT Book Class 12 National Income
The above NCERT Books for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income have been published by NCERT for latest academic session. The textbook by NCERT for National Income Other Subjects Class 12 is being used by various schools and almost all education boards in India. Teachers have always recommended students to refer to National Income NCERT etextbooks as the exams for Class 12 Other Subjects are always asked as per the syllabus defined in these ebooks. These Class 12 National Income book for Other Subjects also includes collection of question. We have also provided NCERT solutions for Class 12 Other Subjects which have been developed by teachers of StudiesToday.com after thorough review of the latest book and based on pattern of questions in upcoming exams for Class 12 students.
NCERT Book Class 12 Other Subjects National Income
The latest NCERT book for National Income pdf have been published by NCERT based on the latest research done for each topic which has to be taught to students in all classes. The books for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income are designed to enhance the overall understanding of students. All Class 12 NCERT textbooks have been written in an easy to understand language which will help to enhance the overall level of Class 12 students.
National Income NCERT Book Class 12 Other Subjects
As the students of Class 12 need the books for their regular studies, we have provided all NCERT book for National Income in pdf here for free download. All pdf NCERT books available here for Class 12 will help them to read on their mobile or computers. They can take a print of the Class 12 Other Subjects NCERT Book National Income pdf easily and use them for studies. The NCERT textbooks for Class 12 Other Subjects have been provided chapter-wise and can be downloaded for free of cost.
Class 12 Other Subjects National Income NCERT Book
Along with Other Subjects Class 12 NCERT Book in Pdf for National Income we have provided all NCERT Books in English Medium for Class 12 which will be really helpful for students who have opted for english language as a medium. Class 12 students will need their books in English so we have provided them here for all subjects in Class 12.
Class 12 National Income NCERT Book Other Subjects
For Class 12 National Income we have provided books for students who have opted for Hindi and Urdu medium too. You can click on the links provided above to download all Hindi medium Class 12 Other Subjects National Income book in easy to read pdf format. These books will help Class 12 Other Subjects students to understand all topics and also strictly follow latest syllabus for their studies. If you are looking to download the pdf version of Class 12 Other Subjects National Income textbook issued by NCERT then you have come to the correct website
You can download the NCERT Book for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income for latest session from StudiesToday.com
Yes, you can click on the link above and download chapter wise NCERT Books in PDFs for Class 12 for Other Subjects National Income
Yes, the NCERT Book issued for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income have been made available here for latest academic session
You can easily access the link above and download the Class 12 NCERT Books Other Subjects National Income for each chapter
There is no charge for the NCERT Book for Class 12 Other Subjects National Income you can download everything free
Regular revision of NCERT Books given on studiestoday for Class 12 subject Other Subjects National Income can help you to score better marks in exams