CBSE Class 7 English - Direct and Indirect Speech
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DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH
DIRECT AND INDIRECT (OR REPORTED) SPEECH
There are two ways of relating what a person has said: Direct and Indirect
Direct Speech reports the exact words of the speaker.
e.g. -- She said, „I am going to Paris.‟---------------In this sentence the exact words of the speaker are reproduced and is put within inverted commas.
The verb introducing the actual words of the speaker is called the Reporting Verb .In the above example, the verb „said‟ is called the Reporting Verb.
Indirect Speech or Reported Speech reports what the speaker said without quoting his or her exact words.
e.g.-- She said that she was going to Paris.----------------Here the words of the speaker are reproduced in the past tense and are not within inverted commas.
GENERAL RULES FOR CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH (DS) INTO INDIRECT SPEECH (IS)
1. Change in PRONOUNS
a. The pronouns of the First Person in the direct speech change into the person and gender of the subject of the Reporting Verb in the indirect speech.
e.g.— He said, “I am not guilty.”(DS)
He said that he was not guilty.(IS)
b. The pronouns of the Second Person change into the person and gender of the object of the Reporting Verb.
e.g.– He said to me, “You are right”(DS)
He told me that I was right.(IS)
c. The pronouns of the Third Person suffer no change.
e.g.– He said to her, “He is writing.”
He told her that he was writing.
2. Change in words and expressions of TIME and PLACE
The words and expressions showing nearness in time and place in the direct speech are changed into words and expressions showing distance.
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