Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set F in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Chemistry have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Chemistry in Standard 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Chemistry for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Chemistry given our website
Thermodynamics Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes
Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Thermodynamics in standard 11. These exam notes for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Thermodynamics Notes Class 11 Chemistry
IMPORTANT POINTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. Thermodynamics: Science which deals with study of different forms of energy and quantitative relationship.
2. System & Surroundings: The part of universe for study is called system and remaining portion is surroundings.
3. State of system & state function: State of system is described in terms of T,
P, V etc. The property which depends only on state of system not upon path is called state function eg. P, V, T, E, H, S etc.
4. Extensive & Intensive Properties: Properties which depends on quantity ofmatter called extensive prop. eg. mass, volume, heat capacity, enthalpy,entropy etc. The properties which do not depends on matter presentdepends upon nature of substance called Intensive properties. eg. T,P,density, refractive index, viscosity, bp, pH, mole fraction etc.
5. Internal energy: The total energy with a system.
i.e.U = Ee + En + Ec + Ep + Ek + ‐‐‐‐‐‐
U = U2 – U1 or UP – UR & U is state function and extensive properly. If U1 > U2 energy is released.
6. Heat (q): It I a form of energy which is exchanged between system andsurrounding due to difference of temperature. Unit is Joule (J) or Calorie (1Calorie = 4.18 J).
7. First Law of Thermodynamics: It is law of conservation energy. Energy canneither be created not destroyed, it may be converted from one from intoanother.
Mathematically U = q + w, w = –p. V (work of expansion)
U = q – p. V or q = U + p. V, q,w are not state function.83 But U is state function.
8. Enthalpy (H): At constant volume V = 0, qv = U So H = U + p. V, qp = H2 H1 = H H = U + P. V.
9. Relationship between qp, qv i.e. H& U It is H = U+ ng.RT or qp = qv + ng.RT
10. Exothermic and Endothermic reactions: H = –Ve for exothermic and H = +Ve for endothermic reaction i.e. evolution and absorption of heat.
Eg C+O2 CO2 + 393.5 KJ, H = –393.5 KJ (exothermic)
N2 + O2 2NO – 180.7 KJ, H = 180.7 KJ (Endothermic)
11. Enthalpy of reaction ( rH): The amount of heat evolved or absorbed whenthe reaction is completed.
12. Standard Enthalpy of reaction ( rH0) at 1 bar pressure and specific temp.(290K) i.e. standard state.
13. Different types of Enthalpies of reactions:
(i) Enthalpy of combustion ( cH), (ii) Enthalpy of formation ( fH)
(iii) Enthalpy of neutralization (iv) Enthalpy of solution
(v) Enthalpy of atomization( aH), (vi)Enthalpy of Ionisation ( iH)
(vii) Enthalpy of Hydration ( hyol.H) (viii) Enthalpy of fusion ( fus.H)
(ix) Enthalpy of vaporization ( vap.H) (x)Enthalpy of sublimation ( sub.H) ( sub.H) = fus.(H) ‐ vap(H)
14. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation: The total amount of heat change issame whether the reaction takes place in one step or in several steps.i.e. H = H1 + H2 + H3 + ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
15. Bond enthalpy: It is amount of energy released when gaseous atomscombines to form one mole of bonds between them or heat absorbed whenone mole of bonds between them are broken to give free gaseous atoms.Further rH = B.E. (Reactants) ‐ B.E. (Products)
16. Spontaneous & Non Spontaneous Processes: A process which can take place by itself is called spontaneous process. A process which can neither take place by itself or by initiation is called non Spontaneous.
17. Driving forces for spontaneous process: (i) Tendency for minimum energy state. (ii) Tendency for maximum randomness.
18. Entropy (S): It is measure of randomness or disorder of system i.e. Gas>Liquid>Solid.
19. Spontaneity in term of ( S)
S(total) = S(universe) = S(system) + S(surrounding)
If S(total) is +ve, the process is spontaneous.
If S(total) is –ve, the process is non spontaneous.
20. Second Law of thermodynamics: In any spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe always increases. A spontaneous process cannot be reversed.
21. Gibb’s free energy (G): defined as G = H – T.S & G = H – T. S (Gibb’s
Helmholtz equation) it is equal useful work i.e. ‐ G = W(useful) = W(max.)
If G = ve, process is spontaneous.
22. Effects of T on spontaneity of a process: G = H – T. S.
(i) For endothermic process may be non spontaneous at low temp.
(ii)For exothermic process may be non spontaneous at high temp. and spontaneous at low temp.
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