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CBSE Class 9 Chemistry-Thermodynamics. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
IMPORTANT POINTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. Thermodynamics: Science which deals with study of different forms of energy and quantitative relationship.
2. System & Surroundings: The part of universe for study is called system and remaining portion is surroundings.
3. State of system & state function: State of system is described in terms of T,
P, V etc. The property which depends only on state of system not upon path is called state function eg. P, V, T, E, H, S etc.
4. Extensive & Intensive Properties: Properties which depends on quantity ofmatter called extensive prop. eg. mass, volume, heat capacity, enthalpy,entropy etc. The properties which do not depends on matter presentdepends upon nature of substance called Intensive properties. eg. T,P,density, refractive index, viscosity, bp, pH, mole fraction etc.
5. Internal energy: The total energy with a system.
i.e.U = Ee + En + Ec + Ep + Ek + ‐‐‐‐‐‐
U = U2 – U1 or UP – UR & U is state function and extensive properly. If U1 > U2 energy is released.
6. Heat (q): It I a form of energy which is exchanged between system andsurrounding due to difference of temperature. Unit is Joule (J) or Calorie (1Calorie = 4.18 J).
7. First Law of Thermodynamics: It is law of conservation energy. Energy canneither be created not destroyed, it may be converted from one from intoanother.
Mathematically U = q + w, w = –p. V (work of expansion)
U = q – p. V or q = U + p. V, q,w are not state function.83 But U is state function.
8. Enthalpy (H): At constant volume V = 0, qv = U So H = U + p. V, qp = H2 H1 = H H = U + P. V.
9. Relationship between qp, qv i.e. H& U It is H = U+ ng.RT or qp = qv + ng.RT
10. Exothermic and Endothermic reactions: H = –Ve for exothermic and H = +Ve for endothermic reaction i.e. evolution and absorption of heat.
Eg C+O2 CO2 + 393.5 KJ, H = –393.5 KJ (exothermic)
N2 + O2 2NO – 180.7 KJ, H = 180.7 KJ (Endothermic)
11. Enthalpy of reaction ( rH): The amount of heat evolved or absorbed whenthe reaction is completed.
12. Standard Enthalpy of reaction ( rH0) at 1 bar pressure and specific temp.(290K) i.e. standard state.
13. Different types of Enthalpies of reactions:
(i) Enthalpy of combustion ( cH), (ii) Enthalpy of formation ( fH)
(iii) Enthalpy of neutralization (iv) Enthalpy of solution
(v) Enthalpy of atomization( aH), (vi)Enthalpy of Ionisation ( iH)
(vii) Enthalpy of Hydration ( hyol.H) (viii) Enthalpy of fusion ( fus.H)
(ix) Enthalpy of vaporization ( vap.H) (x)Enthalpy of sublimation ( sub.H) ( sub.H) = fus.(H) ‐ vap(H)
14. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation: The total amount of heat change issame whether the reaction takes place in one step or in several steps.i.e. H = H1 + H2 + H3 + ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
15. Bond enthalpy: It is amount of energy released when gaseous atomscombines to form one mole of bonds between them or heat absorbed whenone mole of bonds between them are broken to give free gaseous atoms.Further rH = B.E. (Reactants) ‐ B.E. (Products)
16. Spontaneous & Non Spontaneous Processes: A process which can take place by itself is called spontaneous process. A process which can neither take place by itself or by initiation is called non Spontaneous.
17. Driving forces for spontaneous process: (i) Tendency for minimum energy state. (ii) Tendency for maximum randomness.
18. Entropy (S): It is measure of randomness or disorder of system i.e. Gas>Liquid>Solid.
19. Spontaneity in term of ( S)
S(total) = S(universe) = S(system) + S(surrounding)
If S(total) is +ve, the process is spontaneous.
If S(total) is –ve, the process is non spontaneous.
20. Second Law of thermodynamics: In any spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe always increases. A spontaneous process cannot be reversed.
21. Gibb’s free energy (G): defined as G = H – T.S & G = H – T. S (Gibb’s
Helmholtz equation) it is equal useful work i.e. ‐ G = W(useful) = W(max.)
If G = ve, process is spontaneous.
22. Effects of T on spontaneity of a process: G = H – T. S.
(i) For endothermic process may be non spontaneous at low temp.
(ii)For exothermic process may be non spontaneous at high temp. and spontaneous at low temp.
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