CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set D

Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set D in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Chemistry have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Chemistry in Standard 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Chemistry for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Chemistry given our website

States Of Matter Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes

Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for States Of Matter in standard 11. These exam notes for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

States Of Matter Notes Class 11 Chemistry

 

5.States  of Matter

Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter

1.  Intermolecular forces : are the forces of attraction and repulsion between interacting particles (atoms and molecules). This term does not include the electrostatic forces that exist between the two oppositely charged ions and the forces that hold atoms of a molecule together i.e., covalent bonds. Attractive intermolecular forces are known as van der Waals forces, in honour of Dutch scientist Johannes van der Waals (1837-1923).

2.  Dipole - Dipole Forces:Dipole-dipole forces act between the molecules possessing permanent dipole. Ends of the dipoles possess ―partial charges‖ and these charges are shown by Greek letter delta (δ

Class_11_Chemistry-States_of_Matter

3.  Dipole -Induced Dipole Forces: This type of attractive forces operate between the polar molecules having permanent dipole and the molecules lacking permanent dipole. Permanent dipole of the polar molecule induces dipole on the electrically neutral molecule by deforming its electronic cloud.Thus an 

Class_11_Chemistry-States_of_Matter

4.  Dispersion Forces or London Forces:Atoms and nonpolar molecules are electrically symmetrical and have no dipole moment because their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically distributed. But a dipole may develop momentarily even in such atoms and molecules. This can be understood as follows. Suppose we have two atoms ‗A‘ and ‗B‘ in the close vicinity of each other (Fig. 5.1a NCERT page 133). It may so happen that momentarily electronic charge distribution in one of the atoms, say ‗A‘, becomes unsymmetrical i.e., the charge cloud is more on one side than the other (Fig. 5.1 b and c NCERT page 133). This results in the development of instantaneous dipole on the atom ‗A‘ for a very short time. This instantaneous or transient dipole distorts the electron density of the other atom ‗B‘, which is close to it and as a consequence a dipole is induced in the atom ‗B‘. The temporary dipoles of atom ‗A‘ and ‗B‘ attract each other. Similarly temporary dipoles are induced in molecules also. This force of attraction was first proposed by the German physicist Fritz London, and for this reason force of attraction between two temporary dipoles is known as London force. Another name for this force is dispersion force.

5.  Hydrogen bond: Hydrogen bond is represented by a dotted line (– – –) while a solid line represents the covalent bond. Thus, hydrogen bond can be defined as the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with theelectronegative atom (F, O or N) of another molecule this is special case of dipole-dipole interaction.. 

6. Boyleís Law (Pressure – Volume Relationship): At constant temperature, the pressure of a fixed amount (i.e., number of moles n) of gas varies inversely with its volume. This is known as Boyleís law.

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry-States of Matter

 

7. Charles Law (Temperature – Volume Relationship): It states that pressure remaining constant, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.i.e. V ά T (at constant P & V)

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry-States of Matter

 

8. Gay Lussacís Law (Pressure-Temperature Relationship): It states that at constant volume, pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the temperature. Mathematically, . P ά T (at constant V & n)

 

 CBSE Class 11 Chemistry-States of Matter

 

9. Avogadro Law (Volume – Amount Relationship): It states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. i.e. V ά n i.e. V =K4n. Since volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles; one mole of each gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP)* will have same volume. Standard temperature and pressure means 273.15 K (0oC) temperature and 1 bar (i.e., exactly 105 pascal) pressure
 
10. Ideal gas: A gas that follows Boyles law chales law and Avogadro law strictly.

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry-States of Matter

 

14. Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance:M= P dRT

 

15. Daltonís Law of Partial Pressures: It states that the total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases i.e., the pressures which these gases would exert if they were enclosed separately in the same volume and under the same conditions of temperature. In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by the individual gas is called partial pressure. Mathematically, pTotal = p1+p2+p3+......(at constant T, V) where pTotal is the total pressure exerted by the mixture of gases and p1, p2 , p3 etc. are partial pressures of gases.

 

16. KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OFGASES:

 

• Gases consist of large number of identical particles (atoms or molecules) that are so small and so far apart on the average that the actual volume of the molecules is negligible in comparison to the empty space between them. They are considered as point masses. This assumption explains the great compressibility of gases.explains the great compressibility of gases.

 

 There is no force of attraction between the particles of a gas at ordinary temperature and pressure. The support for this assumption comes from the fact that gases expand and occupy all the space available to them.

 

• Particles of a gas are always in constant and random motion. If the particles were at rest and occupied fixed positions, then a gas would have had a fixed shape which is not observed.

 

 Particles of a gas move in all possible directions in straight lines. During their random motion, they collide with each other and with the walls of the container. Pressure is exerted by the gas as a result of collision of the particles
with the walls of the container.

 

• Collisions of gas molecules are perfectly elastic. This means that total energy of molecules before and after the collision remains same.

 

17. Behaviour Of Real Gases: Deviation From Ideal Gas:Real gases show deviations from ideal gas law (a)Pressure correction: pressure exerted by the gas is lower than the pressure exerted by the ideal gas.

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry-States of Matter

 

Constants a and b are called van der Waals constants
19. Significance of Vander wall parameter: Vander wall parameter a is the measure of intermolecular forces while b is the measure of effective size of gaseous molecules Unit of a = bar L3 mol-2 Unit of b = L mol-1

 

20. The deviation from ideal behaviour can be measured in terms of compressibility factor Z, which is the ratio of product pV and nRT. Mathematically Z= pV /nRT

21. The temperature at which a real gas obeys ideal gas law over an appreciable range of pressure is called Boyle temperature or Boyle point.

 

22. Critical temperature (TC)of a gas is highest temperature at which liquifaction of the gas first occurs. Liquifaction of so called permanent gase Volume of one mole of the gas at critical temperature is called critical volume (VC) and
pressure at this temperature is called critical pressure (pC). The critical temperature, pressure and volume are called critical constants


Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set D

Tags: 

 


Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more Chemistry Study Material
*More Study Material
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Formulae
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set F
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set G
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Study Material All Chapters
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Summary Si Unit Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Summary Significant Figures
Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Basic Concepts Of Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Basic Concepts Of Chemistry Notes Set B
Chapter 2 Structure of Atom
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set F
Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Periodic Classification Of Elements Notes
Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding Notes
Chapter 5 States of Matter
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set F
Chapter 6 Thermodynamics
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set F
Chapter 7 Equilibrium
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set E
Chapter 8 Redox Reactions
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reaction Summary Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set D
Chapter 9 Hydrogen
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set D
Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set D
Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry P Block Elements Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set C
Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles & Techniques
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles And Techniques Notes
Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Summary
Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set D

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

Board Exams Date Sheet Class 10 and Class 12

Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 10  (Scroll down for Class 12 Datesheet) Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 12

Class 10th and 12th Term 2 Revaluation Process 2022

Evaluation of the Answer Books is done under a well-settled Policy. To ensure that the evaluation is error free, CBSE is taking several steps. After strictly following these steps, the result is prepared. Though, CBSE is having a well-settled system of assessment,...

CBSE Term 2 Board Examinations

CBSE vide Circular No.Acad-51/2021 dated 5th July, 2021, notified that in the session 2021-2022, Board Examinations would be conducted in two terms, i.e.. Term I and Term II. This decision was taken due to the uncertainty arising out of COVID 19 Pandemic. Term I...

Celebration of Matribhasha Diwas Mother Language day

UNESCO has declared 21st February of every year to be celebrated as International Mother Language day to promote dissemination of Mother Language of all, create awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions and diversity across the world and to inspire solidarity...