Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set A in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Chemistry have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Chemistry in Standard 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Chemistry for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Chemistry given our website
Classification Of Elements Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes
Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Classification Of Elements in standard 11. These exam notes for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Classification Of Elements Notes Class 11 Chemistry
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN
PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law:- The properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses.
Moseley, the English physicist showed that atomic number i+s more fundamental property of an element than its atomic mass. Therefore, the position of an element in the periodic table depends on its atomic number than its atomic mass.
Modern Periodic Law: The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
Types of Elements: s-, p-, d- and f- blocks.
MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS/ REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS:
The s- and p- block elements are called main group elements or representative elements.
s- block elements: Group-1 (Alkali metals) and Group-2 elements (Alkaline earth metals) which respectively have ns1 and ns2 outermost electronic configurations.
p- Block elements: They belongs to group- 13 to 18. The outer most electronic configuration is ns2 np1 -6. He (1s2) is a s- block element but is positioned
with the group 18 elements (ns2 np6) because it has completely filled valence shell and as a result, exhibits properties characteristic of other noble gases.
d- block elements (Transition elements) are the elements of group 3 to 12 having outer electronic configuration (n-1) d1-10 ns1-2. Four transition series are 3d, 4d, 5d and 6d. The 6d- series is incomplete. Atomic radius generally decreases across a period and increases as we descend the group.
f-Block elements (Inner- transition Series)
Lanthanides characterized by the filling of4 f-orbitals, are the elements following lanthanum from 58Ce to 71Lu. Actinides characterized by filling of 5f-orbitals, are the elements following actinium from 70Th to 103Lr. Characteristic outer
electronic configuration is (n-2) f
1-14 (n-1) d0-1 ns2.
1Noble Gases: The gaseous elements of group 18 are called noble gases. The general outermost electronic configuration of noble gases (except He) is ns2 np6.
He exceptionally has 1s2 configuration. Thus the outermost shell of noble gases is completely filled.
PERIODICITY: The repetition of similar properties after regular intervals is called periodicity.
Cause of Periodicity: The properties of elements are the periodic repetition of similar electronic configuration of elements as the atomic number increases.
ATOMIC PROPERTIES: The physical characteristics of the atom of an element are called atomic properties. The properties such as atomic radius, ionic radius, ionisation energy, electro-negativity, electron affinity and valence etc., called atomic properties.
ATOMIC RADIUS- The distance from the center of the nucleus to the outermost shell of the electrons in the atom of any element is called its atomic radius.
Periodicity- (a) In period- Atomic radius of elements decreases from left to right in a period.
(b) In Group- Atomic radius of elements increases on moving top to bottom in a group.
COVALENT RADIUS- Half the inter-nuclear distance between two similar atoms of any element which are covalently bonded to each other by a single covalent bond is called covalent radius.
VAN DER WAALS’ RADIUS: Half the inter-nuclear separation between two similar adjacent atoms belonging to the two neighbouring molecules of the same substance in the solid state is called the van der waals’radius of that atom.
METALLIC RADIUS: Half the distance between the nuclei of the two adjacent metal atoms in a close packed lattice of the metal is called its metallic radius. Van der Waals’radius > Metallic radius > Covalent radius
IONIC RADIUS: The effective distance from the centre of the nucleus of an ion upto which it has an influence on its electron cloud is called its ionic radius.
A cation is smaller but the anion is larger than the parent atom. In case of iso-electronic species, the cation with greater positive charge has smaller radius but anion with greater negative charge has the larger radii.
IONISATION ENTHALPY: The ionisation enthalpy is the molar enthalpy change accompanying the removal of an electron from a gaseous phase atom or ion in its ground state. Thus enthalpy change for the reaction; M(g)→ M+(g) + e-
Is the ionisation enthalpy of the element M. Like ionisation energies for successive ionisation, the successive ionisation enthalpy may also be termed as 2nd ionisation enthalpy (ΔrH2), third ionisation enthalpy (ΔrH3) etc. The term ionisation enthalpy is taken for the first ionisation enthalpy, (ΔrH1) is expressed in kg mol- or in eV.
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