Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set D in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Chemistry have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Chemistry in Standard 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Chemistry for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Chemistry given our website
Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes
Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure in standard 11. These exam notes for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Class 11 Chemistry
Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
1. The attractive force which holds together the constituent particles (atoms, ions or molecules) in chemical species is known as chemical bond.
2. Tendency or urge atoms of various elements to attain stable configuration of eight electrons in their valence shell is cause of chemical combination.
3. The principle of attaining a maximum of eight electrons in the valence shell or outermost shell of atoms is known as octet rule.
4. Electronic Theory: Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical Bonding: Atoms achieve stable octet when they are linked by chemical bonds. The atoms do so either by transfer or sharing of valence electrons. Inner shell electrons are not involved in combination process.
5. Lewis Symbols or electron dot symbols: The symbol of the element represents the whole of the atom except the valence electrons (i.e. nucleus and the electrons in the linear energy shells). The valence electrons are represented by placing dots (.) or crosses (x) around the symbol.
6. Significance of Lewis Symbols: The Lewis symbols indicate the number of electrons in the outermost or valence shell which helps to calculate common or group valence.
7. The common valence of an element is either equal to number of dots or valence electrons in the Lewis symbol or it is equal to 8 minus the number of dots or valence electrons.
8. The bond formed by mutual sharing of electrons between the combining atoms of the same or different elements is called a covalent bond.
9. If two atoms share one electron pair, bond is known as single covalent bond and is represented by one dash (–).
10. If two atoms share two electron pairs, bond is known as double covalent bond and is represented by two dashes (=).
11. If two atoms share three electron pairs, bond is known as triple covalent bond and is represented by three dashes ( ).
13. Significance of Formal charge: The formal charges help in selection of lowest energy structure from a number of possible Lewis structures for a given molecule or ion. Lowest energy structure is the one which has lowest formal charges on the atoms.
14. Expanded octet: Compounds in which central atom has more than eight electrons around it, atom is said to possess an expanded octet.
15. General Properties of Covalent Compounds:
1. The covalent compounds do not exist as ions but they exist as molecules.
2. The melting and boiling points of covalent compounds are generally low.
3. Covalent compounds are generally insoluble or less soluble in water and other polar solvents. However, these are soluble in non- polar solvents.
4. Since covalent compounds do not give ions in solution, these are poor conductors of electricity in the fused or dissolved state.
5. Molecular reactions are quite slow because energy is required to break covalent bonds.
6. Since the covalent bond is localized in between the nuclei of atoms, it is directional in nature.
16. Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond: Covalent type bond in which both the electrons in the shared pair come from one atom is called a coordinate covalent bond. Co- Ordinate Covalent Bond is usually represented by an arrow () pointing from donor to the acceptor atom. Co- Ordinate Covalent bond is also called as dative bond, donor – acceptor bond, semi- polar bond or co-ionic bond.
17. Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond:
Covalent type bond in which both the electrons in the shared pair come from one atom is called a coordinate covalent bond.
Co- Ordinate Covalent Bond is usually represented by an arrow ()
pointing from donor to the acceptor atom.
Co- Ordinate Covalent bond is also called as dative bond, donor – acceptor bond, semi- polar bond or co-ionic bond.
18. The electrostatic force of attraction which holds the oppositely charged ions together is known as ionic bond or electrovalent bond.
19. Ionic compounds will be formed more easily between the elements with comparatively low ionization enthalpy and elements with comparatively high negative value of electron gain enthalpy.
20. A quantitative measure of the stability of an ionic compound is provided by its lattice enthalpy and not simply by achieving octet of electrons around the ionic species in the gaseous state.
21. Lattice enthalpy may also be defined as the energy required to completely separating one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ionic constituents.
22. Factor affecting lattice enthalpy:
Size of the ions: Smaller the size of the ions, lesser is the inter-nuclear distance and higher will be lattice enthalpy.
Larger the magnitude of charge on the ions, greater will be the attractive forces between the ions. Consequently, the lattice enthalpy will be high.
23. General Properties of Ionic Compounds:
Ionic compounds usually exist in the form of crystalline solids.
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.
Ionic compounds are generally soluble in water and other polar solvents having high dielectric constants.
Ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity in the solutions or in their molten states.
The chemical reactions of ionic compounds are characteristic of the constituent ions and are known as ionic reactions.
In ionic - compounds, each ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions uniformly distributed all around the ion and therefore, electrical field is nondirectional.
24. Bond length: It is defined as the average distance between the nuclei of the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
25. Covalent radius is half of the distance between two similar atoms joined by single covalent bond in same molecule.
26. Van der Waals radius is one half of the distance between two similar adjacent atoms belonging to two nearest neighbouring molecules of the same substance in the solid state. It is always larger than covalent radii.
27. Bond angle: It is defined as the average angle between orbitals containing bonding electron pairs around the central atom in a molecule.
28. Bond enthalpy: It is defined as amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds of a particular type between atoms in gaseous state.
29. Bond order: The bond order is defined as the number of bonds between two atoms in a molecule.
30. When a single Lewis structure cannot determine a molecule accurately,
concept of resonance is used wherein a number of structures with similar energy, positions of nuclei, bonding and non-bonding pairs of electrons are taken as canonical structures of hybrid which describes molecule accurately.
31. Resonance: When a molecule cannot be represented by a single structure but its characteristic properties can be described by two or more than two
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