CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set D

Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set D in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Chemistry have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Chemistry in Standard 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Chemistry for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Chemistry given our website

Equilibrium Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes

Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Equilibrium in standard 11. These exam notes for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Equilibrium Notes Class 11 Chemistry

 

 EQUILIBRIUM

♦Equilibrium state- When rate of formation of a product in a process is in competition with rate of formation of reactants, the state is then named as “Equilibrium state” .

Equilibrium in physical processes: solid liquid gas H2O(s ) H2O(l) H2O(vap)

Law of chemical equilibrium: At a given temperature, the product ofconcentrations of the reaction productsraised to the respective stoichiometriccoefficient in the balanced chemicalequation divided by the product ofconcentrations of the reactants raised totheir individual stoichiometric coefficientshas a constant value. This is known asthe Equilibrium Law or Law of ChemicalEquilibrium. 

 class_11_Chemistry_concept_26

 If Qc >Kc, the reaction will proceed in thedirection of reactants (reverse reaction).If Qc <Kc, the reaction will proceed in thedirection of the products (forward reaction)

 Kp is equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressure of gaseous reactants and products.

 Kc is equilibrium constant in terms of molar concentration of gaseous reactants and products.

 Kp =Kc (RT)Δn here R is gas constant, T is temperature at which the process is carried out &Δn is no. of moles of gaseous product minus no. of moles of gaseous reactants.

 If Kc> 103; Kc is very high i.e. the reaction proceeds nearly to completion.

 If Kc<103; Kc is very small i.e. the reaction proceeds rarely.

 If Kcis ranging in the range of 103 to 10-3; i.e. reactants and products are just in equilibrium.

 ΔG = – RT lnK or ΔG = – 2.303RT log K

 Factors affecting equilibrium constant:- temperature, pressure, catalyst and molar concentration of reactants and products. 

 Le Chatelier’s principle:- It states that a change in any of the factors thatdetermine the equilibrium conditions of asystem will cause the system to changein such a manner so as to reduce or tocounteract the effect of the change. 

 Arrhenius acids are the substances that ionize in water to form H+.

 Arrhenius bases are the substances that ionize in water to form OH-.

 Lewis acids are lone pair (of e-) accepters while Lewis bases are lone pair donators.

Proton donor are acids while proton accepters are bases(Bronsted-Lowry concept).

 The acid-base pair thatdiffers only by one proton is called a conjugateacid-base pair. IfBrönsted acid is a strong acid then itsconjugate base is a weak base and viceversa.

 Ionic product of water.Kw = [H+][OH–]

 pH = -log [H+] ; here[H+] is molar concentration of hydrogen ion.

 pH + pOH =14

pKa + pKb =14

 Ka x Kb = Kw = ionic product of water=1 x 10-14 

 Buffer solution :The solutions which resist change in pH on dilution or with the addition of small amounts of acid or alkali are called Buffer Solutions.

 common ion effect: It can be defined as a shift in equilibrium on adding a substance that provides more of an ionic species already present in the dissociation equilibrium.

 Hydrolysis of Salts: process of interaction between water andcations/anions or both of salts is calledhydrolysis.

 The cations (e.g., Na+, K+,Ca2+, Ba2+, etc.) of strong bases and anions(e.g., Cl, Br, NO3–, ClO4– etc.) of strong acids simply get hydrated but do not hydrolyse, andtherefore the solutions of salts formed fromstrong acids and bases are neutral i.e., theirpH is 7.

 Salts of weak acid and strong base e.g.,CH3COONa are basic in nature.

 Salts of strong acid and weak base e.g.,NH4Cl, are acidic

Salts of weak acid and weak base, e.g.,CH3COONH4. The pH is determined by the formula pH = 7 + ½ (pKa – pKb)

 Solubility product- product of the molar concentrations of the ions in a saturated solution, each concentration term raised to the power equal to the no. of ions produced. 

 

QUESTIONS

 

Q.1. Mention the factors that affect equilibrium constant.
Ans. Temperature, pressure, catalyst and molar concentration of reactants and products.

Q.2. Whatis ionic products of water?
Ans. Kw = [H+] [OH-]

Q.3. Write conjugate acids of H2O & NH3.
Ans. H3O+& NH4+.

Q.4. Define Arrhenius acids.
Ans. Arrhenius acids are the substances that ionize in water to form H+.

Q.5. Define the term degree of ionization.
Ans.Extent up to which an acid/base/salt ionize to form ions.

Q.6. What are Buffer solutions?
Ans.The solutions which resist change in pH on dilution or with the addition of small amounts of acid or alkali are called Buffer Solutions.

Q.7. Write Kc for the gaseous reaction- N2 + 3H2⇌ 2NH3
Ans.
Kc=[NH3]2/[N2] [H2]3

Q.8. Out of H2O & H3O+ which is stronger acid?
Ans. H3O+.

Q.9. What is common ion effect?
Ans. Shift in equilibrium on adding a substance that provides more of an ionic species already present in the dissociation equilibrium.

Q.10. Write relationship between Kp and Kc for the gaseous reaction - N2 + O2 ⇌ 2NO
Ans.Kp = Kc asΔn is zero for the above said reaction.

 QUESTIONS
1. What is effect of catalyst on equilibrium constant „Kc‟?
Ans . A catalyst does not affect equilibrium constant because it speeds up both forward and backward reactions to the same extent.

2. State Le Chatelier‟r principle.
Ans.It states that a change in any of the factors thatdetermine the equilibrium conditions of asystem will cause the system to changein such a manner so as to reduce or tocounteract the effect of the change.

3. What is meant by conjugate acid –base pairs? Explain.
Ans:- H2O + HCl⇌H3O+ + Cl- base acid conjugate acid conjugate base

4. Classify the following bases as strong and weak bases: NaHCO3, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2.
Ans:-strong base NaOH, KOH ; weak bases NaHCO3,Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2.

5. The concentration of hydrogen ion in a sample of soft drink is 3.8 × 10–3M. What is its pH ?
Ans:-pH = – log[3.8 × 10–3] = – {log[3.8] + log[10–3]} = – {(0.58) + (– 3.0)} = – { – 2.42} = 2.42 Therefore, the pH of the soft drink is 2.42and it is acidic.

6. The species: H2O, HCO3–, HSO4– and NH3can act both as Bronsted acids and bases.For each case give the correspondingconjugate acid and conjugate base.
Ans:-

 Equilibrium

7. Explain Lewis acids and bases with suitable examples.
Ans:-Lewis acids are lone pair (of e-) accepters while Lewis bases are lone pair donators. AlCl3 is a Lewis acid while NH3 is a Lewis base.

8. What is difference between alkali and bases? Give examples.
Ans:- An alkali is a water soluble base. All the alkalis are bases but all the bases are not alkali. Ex- NaOH is an alkali/base. Ca(OH)2 is a base but not an alkali.

9. Explain homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium giving examples.
Ans:- If all the reactants and products present in an equilibrium mixture are in same phase→homogeneous equilibrium. If all the reactants and products present in an equilibrium mixture are in different phase→ heterogeneous equilibrium. N2 (g) + 3H2(g) ⇌2NH3(g) homogeneous equilibrium CaCO3(s)⇌CaO(s) + CO2(g)heterogeneous equilibrium

Please click the link below to download pdf file for CBSE Class XI Chemistry Equilibrium Concepts.

Tags: 

 


Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more Chemistry Study Material
*More Study Material
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Formulae
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set F
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes Set G
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Study Material All Chapters
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Summary Si Unit Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Summary Significant Figures
Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Basic Concepts Of Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Basic Concepts Of Chemistry Notes Set B
Chapter 2 Structure of Atom
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Structure Of Atom Notes Set F
Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Of Elements Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Periodic Classification Of Elements Notes
Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding Notes
Chapter 5 States of Matter
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry States Of Matter Notes Set F
Chapter 6 Thermodynamics
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set E
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics Notes Set F
Chapter 7 Equilibrium
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set D
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium Notes Set E
Chapter 8 Redox Reactions
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reaction Summary Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions Notes Set D
Chapter 9 Hydrogen
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen Notes Set D
Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The S Block Element Notes Set D
Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry P Block Elements Notes
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry The P Block Elements Notes Set C
Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles & Techniques
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles And Techniques Notes
Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbon Summary
Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set A
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set B
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set C
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Notes Set D

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

CBSE Term 2 Board Examinations

CBSE vide Circular No.Acad-51/2021 dated 5th July, 2021, notified that in the session 2021-2022, Board Examinations would be conducted in two terms, i.e.. Term I and Term II. This decision was taken due to the uncertainty arising out of COVID 19 Pandemic. Term I...

Celebration of Matribhasha Diwas Mother Language day

UNESCO has declared 21st February of every year to be celebrated as International Mother Language day to promote dissemination of Mother Language of all, create awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions and diversity across the world and to inspire solidarity...

Class 10th and 12th Term 2 Revaluation Process 2022

Evaluation of the Answer Books is done under a well-settled Policy. To ensure that the evaluation is error free, CBSE is taking several steps. After strictly following these steps, the result is prepared. Though, CBSE is having a well-settled system of assessment,...

Board Exams Date Sheet Class 10 and Class 12

Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 10  (Scroll down for Class 12 Datesheet) Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 12