CBSE Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles And Processes Study Guide

Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles And Processes Study Guide in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 12 Biology have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Biology in Standard 12. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 12 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 12 Biology for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 12 Biology given our website

Biotechnology Principles And Processes Study Guide Class 12 Biology Revision Notes

Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Biotechnology Principles And Processes Study Guide in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Biotechnology Principles And Processes Study Guide Notes Class 12 Biology



BIOTECHNOLOGY :- Technique of using living organism or enzymes from organism to produce product & processes useful to Humans.

CLONING :- Producing exact copy or copies of a single parent.

DNA LIGASE :- An enzyme that can seal one DNA fragment with another DNA segment, both having sticky ends.

ELUTION :- The process top separate bands of DNA which are cut out from the Agarose gel & extracted from the gel piece.

ENDONUCLEASES :- The enzymes which make cut at specific position within the DNA.

GEL ELECTROPHORESIS :- The technique of separation of DNA fragments on a natural polymer(gel).

GENETIC ENGINEERING :- The technique to after the chemistry of genetic material DNA / RNA to introduce these into host organisms & thus change the phenotype of the host organism.

GENOME :- Total DNA in the cell of an organism.

LIGASE :- An enzyme that joins the ends of two strands of Nucleic acid.

MICRO INJECTION :- Introduction of foreign genes into animal or plant cell by injecting DNA directly.

PLASMID :- Autonomously replicating circular extra chromosomal DNA of bacteria is known as plasmid.

TRANSFORMATION : - It is a process through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host.


Assignment Questions
1.Which enzyme is called molecular scissors?

2.What do you mean by Ori?

3.Name the polymerase which is generally used in PCR reactions.

4.How is a host cell made competent in introducing rDNA?

5.Name the enzyme commonly used to dissolve the cell wall of bacterial cell?

1.Why is a thermo stable DNA Polymerase needed in amplification/genetic engineering.

2.For the isolation of the genetic material , cells are treated with cellulose or chitinase . Give reason for it

3.Name the enzyme which cut the DNA molecules into fragments with sticky ends?

4.Which cloning vector was discovered first time?

5.Name the method in which foreign DNA is directly introduced into host cell?

6.Name a ‗Natural genetic engineer‘ of plants?

7.What are the three basic steps involved in a single PCR amplification cycle.

8.Draw the diagram of PBR322 vector showing restrictions site

9.How is isolation of the genetic material done?

10.Give diagrammatic representation of rDNA technology

1.―Normal Polymerase can not be used in PCR.A particular polymerase is used in PCR.‖Name the source of that polymerase.

2. Each restriction enzyme cuts the DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence .Name such a sequence.

3.What type of cut ends are formed when both are fonned when both stands of DNA molecule is cleaved exactly at the same nucleotide position?

4.How does a transgenic organism differ from the rest of its population? Cite any two examples of such organism for human advantage

5.How is the gene z (for B-galactosidase) used as marker?

6.Besides better aeration and mixing properties what other advantages do stirred tank bioreactors have over shake flasks ?

7.How are bacteria made capable to take up recombinant DNA? Name the bacteria used for this process.

8.State the principle underlying ‗gel electrphoresis‘ and mention two applications of this technique in Biotechnology.

9.DNA being hydrophilic cannot pass through the cell membrane of a cell. Explain how does recombination DNA get introduced into the cell to transform the latter.

10.In bacterial culture some of the colonies produce blue colour in the presence of a chromogenic substrate and some did not due to the presence or absence of an insert (rDNA) in the coding sequence of the beta- galactosidase.
a) Mention the mechanism and steps involved in the above experiments .
b) How is it better than the technique of plating on two plates having different antibiotics?

Questions for Self Evaluation
1 Differentiate between direct gene transfer and indirect gene transfer .

2 How is gene transfer in animals done ? Give the suitable example .

3 Name two recombinant proteins

4 Name atleast three therapeutically important products obtained through recombinant genetic engineering .

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