CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age Of Industrialization Notes Set B

Download CBSE Class 7 Social Science The Age Of Industrialization Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 7 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 7. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 7 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 7 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 7 Social Science given our website

The Age Of Industrialization Class 7 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 7 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for The Age Of Industrialization in standard 7. These exam notes for Grade 7 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

The Age Of Industrialization Notes Class 7 Social Science

CBSE Class 7 Social Science - The Age Of Industrialization. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

THE AGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

PROTO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was largescale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as -industrialisation.

PRODUCTION IN THE PROTO INDUSTRIALIAZATION PHASE

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.

WHY MERCHANTS MOVED TO THE COUNTRYSIDE

INCREASED DEMAND : With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.

POWERFUL URBAN CRAFT AND TRADE GUILDS IN THE TOWNS

merchants could not expand production within towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside.

WHY PEOPLE IN THE COUNTRY SIDE ACCEPTED THE OFFER MADE BY

THE MERCHANTS

1. DISAPPERING OPEN FIELD SYSTEM: open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sourc1es of income.

Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.

2. FULL UTILIZATION OF FAMILY AND LABOUR RESOURCES: Many farmers had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

RELATIONSHIP B/W TOWNS AND COUNTRY SIDE

Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside. A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool , and carried it to the spinners; the yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, , and then to dyers. The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market.  London in fact came to be known as a finishing centre. This proto-industrial system was thus part of a network of commercial exchanges.

BEGINNING OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN ENGLAND

The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s. But it was only in the late eighteenth century that the number of factories multiplied

A SERIES OF INVENTIONS in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process ( , twisting and spinning, and rolling). They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production of stronger threads and yarn.

INVENTION OF THE COTTON MILL

Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Now, the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill. All th4e production pocesses were brought together under one roof and management. This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality, and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when production was in the countryside.

SECTORS WHICH UNDERWENT INDUSTRIALIZATION

1. cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840

2. iron and steel industry led the way. With the expansion of railways, in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873 Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about £ 77 million, double the value of its cotton export

EVEN THOUGH STEAM ENGINE WAS INVENTED IN 1781, IT WAS NOTINSTANTLY ACCEPTED BY ALL ?

A. James Watt improved the steam engine by Newcoman and Mathew Boulton, the industrialist, manufactured the new model. Yet it was not accepted by all production sector as the pace of industrialization was slow till the mid 19 century

REASONS

1.New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly. The machines were not effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

2. The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sector Textiles was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within domestic units

3. The pace of change in the traditional industries was not set by the steam powered cotton or metal industries, but they did not remain entirely stagnant either. Seemingly ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making, and production of implements There was plenty of labour and wages were low.

HOW HAND LABOUR WAS DIFFERENT FROM MACHINES / WHY THE ELITEPREFERRED HAND MADE GOODS

1.. Hand Labour could produce a range of products. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms and standardized goods for a mass market.

2. The market demand was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes that Only hand labour could produce

1. In Victorian Britain, the upper classes (the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie) preferred things produced by hand. They symbolized refinement and class. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed. Machine-made goods were meant for export to the colonies

LIFE OF THE WORKERS

The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers

1. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the citie The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations.

2. Many job- seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authoritie

3. Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places.

4. Wages increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. During the prolonged Napoleonic War, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.

5. The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.eg when the spinning jenny was introduced women workers started attacking the machines as they feared unemployment

IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE CITIESINTENSIFICATION OF BUILDING ACTIVITIES: opened up employment opportunities as roads were widened, new railway stations came up,railway lines extended and tunnels were dug up. The number of workers employed in the transport industry doubled in the 1840s, and doubled again in the subsequent 30 years.

INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE COLONIES

CASE STUDY INDIA

Before the age of machine industries, SILK AND COTTON GOODS from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India

IMPORTANT SEAPORTS BEFORE ARRIVAL OF BRITISH TO INDIA

. Surat on the Gujarat Coast connected India to the Gulf and the Red Sea ports. Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with South-East Asian ports.

ROLE OF THE INDIAN MERCHANTS AND BANKERS IN THE NETWORKOF EXPORT TRADE BEFORE THE AGE OF MACHINE INDUSTRIES?

THE mer chants gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and carried the supply to the ports. At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland

EFFECTS ON THE THE INDIAN EXPORTS AFTER THE EUROPEAN TRADINGCOMPANIES TOOK CONTROL OF TRADE IN INDIA

1. The Indian exports drastically declined

2. The old ports of Surat and Hoogly declined and Bombay and Calcutta grew as new ports

3. Many of the old trading houses collapsed and the Indian Bankers henceforth flourishing on Indian export trade became bankrup

OTHER EUROPEAN TRADERS COMPETING WITH THE EAST INDIACOMPANY IN 1760-1770 IN INDIAN MARKETS FOR EXPORTS?

The French, The Dutch and the Portuguese were the other European traders competing with the East India Company in 1760-1770 in Indian markets for exports.

STEPS TAKEN BY EIC TO ENSURE A REGULAR SUPPLY OF SILK ANDCOTTON

1. APPOINTMENT OF A PAID SERVANT CALLED GOMASTHA: . First: the Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth. Second: it prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers

2. SYSTEM OF ADVANCES: Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomasthas and. They could not take it to any other trader

IMPACT OF THE GOMASTHAS AND ADVANCE SYSTEM ON THEINDIAN WEAVERS

1. Many weavers had small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated along with weaving, and the produce from this took care of their family needs. Now they had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving, in fact, required the labour of the entire family, with children and women all engaged in different stages of the process.

2. in many weaving villages there were reports of clashes between weavers and . the gomasthas who acted arrogantly, marched into villages, and punished weavers for delays

3. In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation

4. . Elsewhere, weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials. Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

STEPS TAKEN BY EIC TO PROMOTE ITS TEXTILE INDUSTRY INMANCHESTER

In 1772HENRY PATULLO, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality.

1.IMPOSITION OF IMPORT DUTIES: import duties were imposed on the I ndian cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside.

2.FLOODING THE INDIAN MARKET WITH THE CHEAP MACHINEMADE BRITISH GOODS

At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well

IMPACT OF MACHINE MADE CLOTH ON THE INDIAN MARKET

1. SHRINKING OF LOCAL MARKETthe local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports. Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.

2. COLLAPSE OF THE EXPORT MARKET:After imposition of import duties Indian textileslost their world market.

3. SHORTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL: By the 1860s, weavers faced a new proble They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.as the American Civil war broke out and the British cotton supplies from US were cut off and so theyturned to India. Cotton export from India increasedand price of raw cotton shot .

FACTORIES IN INDIA

FIRST COTTON TEXTILE MILL OF INDIA

. Bombay in 1854

FIRST JUTE MILL IN INDIA

. Seth Hukumchand, a marwary set up the first Indian Juste Mill in Calcutta in 1917.

INDIAN INDUSTRIALISTS / ENTREPRENEURS WHO TRADED WITHCHINA IN 18T& 19TCENTURIES.

. Dwarakanath Tagore, Parsis like Dinshah Petit and Jamshedjee Nusserwanjee Tata and Seth Hukumchand and father and grandfather of G.D. Birla traded with China in 18th & 19th centuries.

 

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