Download CBSE Class 10 Social Science Democracy And Diversity Notes Set B in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 10 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 10. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 10 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 10 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 10 Social Science given our website
• Social Division
Division of the society on the basis of language, region, caste, colour, race or sex. It signifies linguistic and regional diversity.
• Civil Rights Movement in the USA(1954-1968)
A series of events and reform movements with the aim of abolishing legal, racial discrimination against African-Americans. Martin Luther King Jr. started the movement in 1954.This movement practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
Afro-American, Black American or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between early 17th and 19th century.
• The Black power.
It was a movement started by black people in 1966(1966-1975) against racism and the practice of apartheid. It was a militant movement advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US .
Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country for the purpose of work or other economic opportunities to another country for the purpose of work or other economic opportunities.
It refers to communities who are less than half of the total population of the country.The idea of minority at national level is totally different from what it is at state level.
• Homogenous Society.
Homogenous Society signifies absence of significant ethnic differences. It is a society that has similar kinds of people or inhabitants.
• Multi- Cultural Community
Social community formed on the basis of different cultures is known as theMulticultural community. This happens mostly due to the practice of migration when people bring with them their own culture.
(The athletes in the example above were responding to social divisions and inequalities)
Three determinants (factors) for the outcome of politics of social divisions –
• How people perceive their identities- eg-to be an Indian though belonging to different state
• How political leaders raise the demands of any community- eg- The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ in Srilanka brought distrust among Tamils.
• How the govt. react to different groups- eg –Willing to share power and be accommodative like in Belgium
Advantage of social division in democracy-
• Can express their grievances and the govt. attend to it
• Intensity of social division is reduced by canceling one another out, through their expressions(being accommodative)
• Raise their issues in a peaceful manner for seeking votes
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING -
Q1. Mention three similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
• Both were African – Americans.
• Both won medals at the Mexico Olympic Games in 1968.
• Stood against racial discrimination which was practiced against the Africans in America.
Q2. Who was Peter Norman? Why did he support Carlos and Smith? What punishment did he get for this?
• Peter Norman was an Australian Athlete.
• Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the dissent of two American athletes.
• Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympic.
Q 3. How do class and religion overlap with each other in Northern Ireland?
• In Northern Ireland the population is divided into two major sects of Christianity – 53% are Protestants and 44% are Roman Catholics. The Catholics are more likely to be poor
and suffered a history of discrimination. On the other hand, the Protestants are rich.
This resulted in conflicts between the two.
Q4. Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of social divisions in democracy.
• Political expressions of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
• Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their canceling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.
• In a democracy the different social groups organize themselves to bring equality, social justice and other vested interests. Sometimes their protest results into violence or conflicts.
• For the society which has high social divisions, becomes very difficult to ensure integrity and unity.
Q.5- What do you know about origins of social differences?
• Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Some of the differences are based on our choices.
• By Birth- Normally we do not choose to belong to our community, we belong to it simply because we are born into it.
• By choices- Some people are atheists-they do not believe in God or any religion,
some choose to follow religion other than in which they were born.
LONG ANSWERS QUESTIONS : [5 MARKS]
1. ‘Overlapping social differences create deep social divisions and Cross-cutting differences are easier to accommodate’- Justify the given statement.
• Social divisions take place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.
• The difference between Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
• When one kind of social difference become more important than the other, this produces social divisions. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other.
• If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. In Netherlands class and religion tend to cut across each other.
2. Explain the three determinants in deciding the outcome of politics with examples.
• How people perceive their identities.
• How Political leaders raise the demands of any community.
• How the government reacts to demands of different groups. (To explain)
1. How can social divisions be normal and can be healthy in a democracy?
2. How do Migrants play a role in bringing social divisions in a country?
3. Every social division does not lead to social differences – Explain.
4. How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial?
5. Taking the example of Carlos, Smith and Norman explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people.
Question. Which event in the USA is referred as the Black Power Movement (1966-73)?
Ans. The movement to end racism.
Question. What steps should be taken according to you to promote the unity among the people of India?
Ans. Following steps can be taken to promote the unity among Indians :
(i) There should be equal opportunities of representation and no discrimination in the society.
(ii) Participation of more and more people in political affairs should be encouraged.
(iii) Religious tolerance and the support to minority groups should be given and they should be allowed to voice their opinion.
Question. Explain with example the role of political leaders to determine the outcome of politics of social division.
Ans. It depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. For example :
(i) it is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
(ii) The demand for 'only Sinhala' was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(iii) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.
Question. "Social divisions exist in most of the countries." Explain.
Ans. Social division of one kind or the other exists in most of the countries.
(i) Social divisions exist whether the country is big or small. India is a vast country with many communities. Belgium is a small country with many communities too.
(ii) Countries, such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous are undergoing rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the world.
(iii) Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. In this sense, most countries of the world are multicultural and have social division.
Question. Politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix. Substantiate this statement, with five arguments.
Ans. (i) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can change social division into political division and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
(ii) Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalists and between the security forces of the UK in Ireland.
(iii) Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.
(iv) In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about the social divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities, but often it takes a negative turn.
(v) Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some party to others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community, which does not serve the greater cause.
Question. Describe the consequences of Smith and Carlos reaction to the racial discrimination.
Ans. (i) Carlos and Smith were held guilty for violating the Olympic spirit by making political statement.
(ii) Medals were taken back.
(iii) Norman was not included in the Australian team.
(iv) Their action helped in gaining international attention for Civil Rights Movement.
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