CBSE Class 10 Social Science Development Notes

Download CBSE Class 10 Social Science Development Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 10 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 10. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 10 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 10 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 10 Social Science given our website

Development Class 10 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 10 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Development in standard 10. These exam notes for Grade 10 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Development Notes Class 10 Social Science

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• Development: Growth of economy along with the improvement in the quality of life of the people like health, education etc.

• Per capita income: Is the average income obtained as the ratio between National Income and Population of a country.

• National income: Is the money value of final goods and services produced by a country during an accounting year.

• World Development Report: Prepared by World Bank to classifying countries based on their per capita income.

• Human development Index: - It is a composite Index prepared by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through its Annual Human Development Report published every year. Major parameters such as longevity of life, levels of literacy and Per capita income are used to measure the development of countries. World countries are ranked accordingly in to Very High Developed countries, High Developed countries, Medium Developed countries and Low Developed countries.

• Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live birth in that particular year.

• Literacy Rate: It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

• Net Attendance Ratio: is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

• Sustainable Development: - It means development without hampering the Environment. It is the process of development that satisfies the present needs without compromising theneeds of the future generation.

Body Mass Index: (BMI). One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate Body Mass Index. Divide the weight of a person (in kg) by the square of the height (in metres). If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. If this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight.
• Censes: The official enumeration of population along with certain economic and social statistics in a given territory and carried out on a specific day.

Development Different People, Different Goals.

- Different persons can have different development goals.

- What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be destructive for the other.

Income and Other Goals : More income; equal treatment; freedam; Job security; facilities for family; environment (healthy & secure).

Concept of National Development :

- World Development Report 2006, “In 2004 countries with per capita income of Rs. 453000 per annum are called rich or developed countries.

Those with per capita income of Rs.37000 or less are called low income countries.

- Human Development Report 2006 published by UNDP, “Development is based on per capita income, educational levels of the people and their health status.

SustainabilityThe regular process without harming the productivity of future generation and satisfy the need of present generation.

Sustainable DevelopmentDevelopment without damaging surrounding.

Average IncomeTotal income of the country divided by its total population. Also known as per capita income.

National Income : Sum of value of final goods produced within the country and income from foreign factors.

Infant Mortality Rate : The number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

Literacy RateThe proportion of literate population in the 7 and above, age group.

Net attendance Ratio : the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.


QUESTION AND ANSWERS: (THREE MARK)

Question. Mention any four characteristics of development?
Answer : 

• Different people have different development goals.
• What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be even destructive for other.
• Income is the most important component of development, but along with income,
people also seek equal treatment, good health, peace, literacy, etc.
• For development, people look at mix goals.

Question. What contributes to the human development?
Answer : 
There are many economic as well as non-economic factors which contribute to the human development.
• Living a long and healthy life.
• To have education, information and knowledge.
• Enjoying a decent standard of living.
• Enjoying basic fundamental rights like freedom, security, education etc.
• To have equality and enjoyment of human rights.

Question. ‘Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well.’ Explain • Money or higher per capita income cannot buy a pollution free environment or good health.
Answer : 
• Money cannot buy peace and democracy
• Per capital income of Maharashtra is higher than Kerala but still in lacks behind in education and health facilities.
• In Kerala, out of 1000 children born alive,12 die before completing one year of age but in Maharashtra the proportion of children dying is 25.

Question. What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development?
Answer : 
National development refers to the ability of a nation to improve the lives of its citizen.
i). Under national development, the government decides what would be a fair and just for all.
ii). Under national development, only those programmes and policies are implemented which would benefit a large number of people.
iii). Under national development, it is very important to decide about the conflicts and their solutions.
iv). Under national development, we have to think whether there is a better way of doing things.

Question. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Answer : 
The issue of sustainability is important for development because development must be in tandem with the future. If natural resources are not sustained, then development will stagnate after a point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. This is because in the future, those resources will not be available for further progress.

QUESTION AND ANSWERS: (FIVE MARK)

Question. What is average income or per capita income? Why do we use averages? What are the limitations of per capita income?
Answer : 
The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be
used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people. Its main limitations are:
i) A rise in per capital income is due to rise in prices and not due to increase in physical output; it is not a reliable index of economic development.
ii) National income rises but its distribution makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
iii) It excludes all non-marketed goods and services, even though they may be important for human happiness and better quality of life.
iv) Rise in per capital income may be due to use of modern capital intensive technology in production which may be labour displacing in nature thus adversely affecting the poor masses
v) It covers only the economic aspects ignoring peace, health, environment, education, longevity, etc.

Question. Who publishes Human Development Report? What are the criteria used to prepare this report?
Answer : 
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes Annual Human Development Report every year.
Major parameters such as longevity of life (Life Expectancy at birth), levels of literacy and Per capita income are used to measure the development of countries. Life expectancy at birth
denotes average expected length of a person at the time of birth. Percapita income is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared and also because every dollar
would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country. World countries are ranked accordingly in to Very High Developed countries, High Developed countries, Medium
Developed countries and Low Developed countries.

Question What is Per Capita Income? 
Answer : It is obtained by diving national income by the population of a country i.e. Per Capita Income = National Income / Mid Year Population

Question. What is meant by ‘economic development’? Write the two basis of measuring economic development of a country? 
Answer : Economic development is a sustained increase in real per Capita income that promotes economic welfare by reducing poverty, unemployment & inequalities in distribution of Income. Two basis of measuring economic development are National Income & per Capita Income.

Question. “What may be development for one may not be development for the other.” Explain with a suitable example. 
Answer : The establishment of a dam leads to infrastructural development but many people have shifted out of the village, hence it may not be development for them.

Question. Why is the total income of countries not used to make comparisons between them?
Answer : The total income of the countries is not used to make comparisons between them because the population of different countries is different. 

Question. Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Answer : It is an important criterion because it gives some idea about the rising standard of living. Prosperity of a country depends not only on the size of the national income but also on the number of people who would share it. 1 Mark

Question. Besides the size of per capita income, which other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?
Answer : Per capita income is an important but not the only criterion for development. Along with average income, equitable distribution of income in a country should also be considered.

Question. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? 
Answer : Sustainability is important for development because it results in
( i ) protecting the people against pollution ensuring their quality of life & health.
( ii ) conserving the environment which is necessary for development.

Question. What is human development index HDI? 
Answer : HDI is a composite index of achievements of a nation in terms of three important variables that determine the quality of life. These three variables are longevity, knowledge & standard of living. It is prepared by United Nations Development program.

Question. Among Punjab, Kerela & Bihar, which one has the lowest infant mortality rate? 
Answer : Kerela has lowest infant mortality rate.

Question. How can development be sustained in an economy? Give an example with reference to use of resources. 
Answer : Development can be sustained in any economy by using renewable resources such as ground water, wind energy & solar energy.

Question. Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars & not in their own currencies by the World Bank?
Answer : It is done in order to make comparisons of per capita income of different countries possible.

Question. Kerela, with low per capita has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence per capita income is not useful criterion at all & should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? 3 Marks
Answer : It is true that per capita income is not the only criterion behind human development. Factors like infant mortality rate, literacy rate & not attendance ratio are also very crucial for overall human development. In these factors Kerela is better than Punjab. However if we are interested only in comparing two or more states in terms of production and income generated then per capita income is an important criterion.

Question. In what respects is the criterion used by UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? 3 Marks
Answer : World Bank uses the criterion of per capita income (measured in dollar terms) to classify different countries as high income or low income countries. Countries with per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum & above in 2004 are rich countries & countries which have per capita income of Rs. 37000 per annum or less are low income countries (according to WDR 2006). But the limitation of this criterion is that it doesn’t tell us anything about the distribution of income in a country.
UNDP uses a different criterion called human development index (HDI). HDI is a composite index on a scale 0-1 measured on the basis of three indicators,
a) Longevity :- It is measured in terms of life expectancy
b) Knowledge :- It is measured by a combination of adult literacy & combined enrollment ratio
c) Standard of living :- It is measured by real per capita income in dollars The country with 0 HDI will be at bottom & the one with 1 HDI will be at top. All other countries are in between.

Question. ‘While average income is useful for comparison but it may hide disparities’. Discuss.
Answer : Per capita income is an important criterion for development is considered to be one of the most important attributes for comparing countries but is suffers from the following limitations:
( i ) Per capita income doesn’t tell us anything about the distribution of income. A poor country with a more equal distribution of income would be better off than a richer country with unequal distribution of income.
( ii ) Per capita income doesn’t measure various facilities & services that influence quality of life e.g. health facilities, education facilities, equal treatment etc.
( iii ) It is effected by size of population. Even with a large national income, per capita income will be low if a country has large population.

Question. Distinguish between economic development & human development. 
Answer : Human Development
1. It refers to human centered approach towards development. It focuses on people & qualitative improvement in human life.
2. It is indicated by human development index.
3. It is a under term & includes economic development also.
4. It considers human welfare. Should be increased through investments in education & health.

Economic Development
1. It refers to sustained increase in real per capita income that promotes economic welfare by reducing poverty, unemployment & inequalities in distribution of income.
2. It can be indicated by national income & per capita income.
3. It is narrower term as compared to economic development.
4. It considers people can be made better off by increasing their command over goods and services.

Question. How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain three measures to control environmental degradation. 
Answer : Industrial pollution degrades the environment in the following ways :
( i ) Air is polluted by the gases.
( ii ) Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain particles.
( iii ) Industrial effluents pollute rivers.
( iv ) Paper pulp, textiles, chemicals etc. industries pollute land & soil due to toxic materials.
Steps to control environmental degradation are :
( i ) Careful planning & setting of industries.
( ii ) Better equipment
( iii ) Proper fuel selection & utilization.
( iv ) Treatment of industrial liquids.

Question. Identify the different thrust areas of human development. Which one of them plays the most significant role in the development? 4 Marks
Answer : Human development is a human centered approach towards development. It focuses on people.
It is concerned with them and their well being, their needs, choices & aspirations.
Human development is a wider term which not only includes economic development but also includes development of one’s knowledge & educational capabilities as well as one’s health conditions so that one may lead a healthy and long life. Human development aims at building of different human capabilities so that one may make use of natural resource, have sustainable development have better personal & social security & to ensure a decent standard of living.

Question. “Do the two terms –economic growth and economic development mean the same thing”. Discuss.
Answer : No, they are different. Economic growth can be defined as a process whereby a country’s real national income increases over a period of time. On the other hand economic development is a process of long-term increase in income as well as with achieving a more equitable income distribution and poverty alleviation.
Thus economic development is a wider concept than economic growth.

Question. Describe briefly four steps taken by the Indian government for raising the status of women at par with that of men. 4 Marks
Answer : (i) Women are given the equal right to vote like those of men
(ii) the government of India has declared dowry as illegal and now no one can force the other party to give dowry.
(iii) To impart education to girls various schools and colleges have been opened.
(iv) Gender empowerment focusses on opportunities and participation in decision making process and values.
(v) Women have been recognised as a separate target group in our development planning, for raising their status at par with that of men. To achieve the above objective the National Commission for women was set up in January 1992.

Question. Explain two main reasons for the need of environment friendly economic growth and also explain two suggestions to achieve them. 4 Marks
Answer : Reasons for need of environment friendly economic growth are:
(i) Present production technology has polluted atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, smoke and poisnous gases.
(ii) Rapid economic growth and industrialisation have led to natural resources (like fossil fuels).

Suggestions to achieve it:
(i) Increased use of renewable and clean sources of energy, less use of fossil fuels, organic farming.
(ii) Measures to reduce global warming and global limits on carbon emissions etc.

 

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