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Revision Notes for Class 10 Social Science Contemporary India II Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Class 10 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Contemporary India II Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries in Class 10. These exam notes for Class 10 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Contemporary India II Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes Class 10 Social Science
I. Importance of Manufacturing :
Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development.
(i) Manufacturing industries helps in modernising agriculture.
(ii) It reduce the heavy dependence of people on agriculture income by providing them jobs.
(iii) Helps in eradication of unemployment & poverty.
(iv) Helps in bringing down regional disparities.
(v) Exports of manufactured goods expand trade & commerce.
II. Iron and Steel Industry :
- Iron and steel industry is the basic industry steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and variety of consumer goods.
- Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all raw material as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs. Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in 4 : 2 : 1
- India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet we lag behind because.
(a)High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Lower productivity of labour.
(c)Irregular supply of energy.
(d) Poor infrastructure.
III. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation :
Industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development but increase in pollution results in degradation of environment.
4 Types of Pollution :
(a) Air : caused by undesirable gases such as sulpher dioxide and carbon monoxide, air borne particles such as dust, sprays, mist & smoke.
(b) Water Pollution : Caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastes such as release of lead, mercury pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemical, plastics, rubber, fly ash, phosphogypsum etc.
(c) Thermal Pollution : Caused by nuclear power plants nuclear & weapon production cause cancers birth defects & miscarriages.
(d) Noise Pollution : Cause heaving impairment, increased heart rate & blood pressure by making unwanted noise.
(IV) Control of Environment Degradation :
- Minimising the use of water by reusing recycling.
- Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirement.
- Treatment of hot water and effluents before releasing in ponds & rivers, involves 3 steps.
1. Primary treatment by mechanical means.
2. Secondary treatment by biological process.
3. Tertiary treatment by biological chemical & physical processes.
Important Terms and Questions
1. Basic Industries : Industries which supply their products or materials to manufacture other goods like iron and steel, etc., are known as basic or key industries.
2. Consumer Industries : The industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers such as sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans, etc.
3. Private Sector Industries : Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example - Tata Steel, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries, etc.
4. Joint Sector Industries : Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sectors.
5. Heavy Industries : These industries use heavy and bulky raw materials.
6. Light Industries : These industries use light raw materials.
7. NMCC: The NMCC (National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council) was set up when it was felt that, with appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decades.
8. National Jute Policy : National Jute Policy was formulated in the year 2005 with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per year.
9. Organic Chemicals : Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
10. Manufacturing : Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials into more valuable products is called Manufacturing.
11. Agro-based Industries : Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example - cotton textiles, jute textiles, woollen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
12. Mineral-based Industries : Industries using minerals as their raw materials like iron and steel, cement, chemical industries, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, fertilizer industry, etc.
13. Small Scale Industries : The industries that employ maximum investment of one crore.
14. Large Scale Industries : The industries that employ investment of more than one crore.
15. Public Sector Industries : Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government for example - SAIL.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE
1. What are agglomeration economies?
• Many industries tend to come together to make, use of the advantages offered by the urban institutions such as banking, insurance, transport, labour. This is known as agglomeration economies.
2. Which factors are responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile mills in India?
• Cotton textile have a very high demand throughout the country.
• Major inputs like banking, electricity, transportation are available in almost every part of the country
• Textile industry is labour intensive industry and labour is easily available in India.
• Textile industry requires less technological inputs and can be carried out using simple tools and machines.
3. What are the major problems of cotton textile industry?
• Lack of good quality long staple cotton
• Erratic power supply
• Out dated machinery and technology
• Low output of workers
• Stiff International Competition
4. What are the factors responsible for Jute industry in Hugli basin?
• Proximity of jute producing areas
• Inexpensive water transport
• Well-connected roads, rail and waterways.
• Abundant water
• Cheap labour from adjoining areas
• Banking facilities in Kolkata
5. What were the major objectives of National Jute Policy 2005? Why is the internal demand for jute increasing?
• To increase the productivity
• To improve the quality
• Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers
• Enhancing the yield per hectare
• The internal demand for jute has been on the increase because -
o Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging
o The growing global concern for environment friendly biodegradable materials.
6. Why is iron and steel industry called a basic industry?
• It is the industry which lays the foundation of rapid development of other industries such as Heavy Engineering,Defence equipment,Automobiles,Aeroplanes etc.
• It is also helpful in providing employment.
• It also helps in the economic development
7. The sugar industry is now shifting from north to south. Mention main reasons.
• The sugar contents in the cane is higher i.e. 10.5% in Maharashtra and other southern states.
• Climate is suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane.
• South has better export facilities as compared to North.
• Cooperative sugar mills are more successful in management in south India.
• The Peninsular climate helps to extend the crushing season by two months in the south India than north India.
8. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants?
• Integrated Steel Plant is larger in size than Mini Steel Plant.
• Integrated Steel Plant handle everything in one single Complex from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping while the Mini steel Plants use steel scrap, sponge iron and sometimes steel ingots supplied by integrated Steel Plants.
• Integrated Steel Plants manufacture all types of steel but Mini steel Plants produce mild and alloy steel of give specification
9. Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industries.
• Restricting use of fossil fuels and using hydel power
• Fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
• Discharging the dirty water after treating it.
• Machinery and equipment and generators can be fitted with silencers
• Redesign machinery to make them energy efficient and to reduce noise.
Important Questions NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Question. Why has the 'National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council' been set-up?
Ans. To improve the productivity of the industrial sector. However, this has been wound up in March 2016.
Question. Mention any two factors that have contribute to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India? Name two centres where this industry is located.
Ans. (i) The introduction of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in India.
(ii) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global development. The two centres of automobile industry are Jamshedpur and Gurgaon.
Question. Which one of the following has been the major source of foreign exchange for IT industry?
Ans. (c) BPO
Question. Explain any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
Ans. Five ways to reduce industrial pollution are as follows :
(i) Restructuring the manufacturing processes to reduce pollutant by pollution prevention methods.
(ii) Creating cooling ponds, which are designed to cool the hot waters from industries.
(iii) Treatment of sewage in water treatment plants attached to industries.
(iv) Polluting industries should be set-up far from residential areas.
(v) Industries must follow the government norms of pollution control strictly.
Question. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Classification of the industries on the basis of capital investment :
(a) Small Scale Industry (b) Large Scale industry
(ii) Difference :
Small scale Industries : They employ less number of people and capital. Most of the work is done by small machines and manpower. They use less raw material and their production is also less. Example Radio, TV making, agricultural implements etc.
Large scale Industries : These industries employ large number of people and capital. Work is done by large machines and manpower. They use large amount of raw materials and produce more products. Examples are textile industry, steel industry, etc.
Question. What is the importance of the information technology sector for the Indian economy? Explain.
Ans. The importance of IT sector is as follows :
(i) It has provided employment to over one million people.
(ii) This industry is a major foreign exchange earner.
(iii) It has helped in the growth of the service sector in India.
Important Questions NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Question. Examine the impact of liberalisation on automobile industry of India.
Ans. Impact of liberalisation on automobile industry are :
(i) Multi-utility vehicles have been introduced.
(ii) The coming of new and contemporary models which are of international quality.
(iii) Healthy growth and expansion of the market.
(iv) FDI in new technology has come.
(v) The industry has achieved global standard.
Question. Which one of the following cities has emerged as the 'electronic capital' of India?
Ans. (c) Bangalore
Question. How does textile industry occupy a unique position in Indian economy? Explain giving any three points.
Ans. Textile Industry: The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production (14 per cent), employment generation ( over 40 million persons directly – the second largest after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about $ 40 billion). It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.
It is the only industry in the country, which is self- reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products Textile industries create demand for other industries such as chemicals, dyes, packaging materials and engineering works. Thus, it can be concluded that the textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy.
Question. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years? Explain.
Ans. Cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years because:
(i) Availability of raw cotton e.g. belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(ii) Nearness to market
(iii) Efficient transport facility
(iv) Port facilities for export
(v) Cheap labour
(vi) Moist climate
Question. How does industry pollute the environment? Explain with three examples.
Ans. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution i.e., : (i) Air (ii) Water (iii) Noise (iv) Land.
(i) Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Smoke is emitted by factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories. Air pollution is also caused by fine dust particles from construction industry.
(ii) Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries and electroplating industries. They let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, into water bodies. Pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc., also pollute Into the water bodies.
(iii) Noise pollution is due to industrial and construction activities. Machinery and electric drills cause hearing problems and irritation.
(iv) Land Pollution is caused by damping of waste as glass and harmful chemicals and sludge.
Question. How are industries responsible for environmental degradation in India? Explainwith examples.
Ans. Although industrialization has contributed significantly to India’s economic growth and development the increase in pollution has resulted in gross degradation of our environment. Different industries are responsible for the pollution of (a) Air (b) Water (c) Land (d) Noise.
* Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide in air.
* Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke. Smoke is emitted by burning of fossil fuels in different industries such as brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants etc.
* Many times pollution norms are not followed by the industries. The effluents are not treated before their discharge into air or water bodies.
* Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects; as happened after the Bhopal Gas tragedy. Hence meticulous maintenance of equipment is necessary.
* Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers and lakes. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries.
* They release toxic dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, various pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemicals, plastics and rubber etc., into the water bodies.
* Fly ash, phospho- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
* Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling; this greatly harms the aquatic plants and animals.
* Mismanagement of wastes from nuclear power plants can cause cancers and birth defects.
* Soil and water pollution are closely related. Dumping of wastes such as glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging materials, salts and garbage renders the soil useless. Rain water percolates through the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.
* Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a cause of stress. Industrial and construction activities machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise. Health problems caused by sound pollution include : hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure and other physiological effects
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