Download CBSE Class 10 Social Science Federalism Notes Set B in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 10 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 10. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 10 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 10 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 10 Social Science given our website
Features of Federalism:-
• Two or more levels of government
• Each level has its own jurisdiction (power)
• Jurisdictions Specified in the Constitution
• Changes in the provisions of Constitution require the consent of both the govt’s.
• Courts acts as an umpire if any dispute arise between the levels of government.
• Sources of revenue specified (Financial autonomy) – Every state has its own revenue to look after its welfare.
• Dual objective – promote the unity of the country by accommodating regional diversity
• Subjects that do not fall in any of the three lists, laws of union Govt. will prevail. How is federalism practiced?
• Linguistic states- People who spoke the same language lived in the same state.
• Some states were created not on the basis of language, but to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.
• Formation of linguistic states has made the country united, made administration easier. Decentralization Power taken away from centre and State given to local government Reason for Decentralization in India –
• Large country
• Three - Tier govt., - local govt. formed
• Large no: of problems and issues
• Local people-better knowledge of local problems
• Democratic participation – local self – govt.
• 1992- Amendment – third tier made – more powerful Steps taken to make third-tier more powerful
• Regular elections
• Reservation of seats for SC, ST, OBC
• Reservation for women
• Creation of state EC to control elections
• State govt. to share power & revenue with local govt.
Formation of Panchayati Raj (Rural local government)-
• Group of each village have a panchayat
• President or Sarpanch
• Directly elected by the people
• Works under the supervision of gramasabha (all voters of the village)
• Meets twice or thrice a year to approve the budget of Grama Panchayat
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING- [3-MARKS]
1. What are the two routes through which federation have been formed?
• There are two kinds of routes through which federations can be formed.
• First one is ‘Coming together Federation’ in which independent units comes closely to each other to form a union in which both centre and states vis-à-vis powerful.
• Second one is ‘Holding together Federation’- here a large country decides to divide its powers between the constituent states and the national government.
2. What is the importance of Local Self government?
• The matter of local interest like water supply, the cleaning and lighting of streets, maintenance of drainage system, etc are best settled at the local level.
• It is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making at the local levels like people can take part in panchayat meetings held in their area.
• The money spend and the to manage things more efficiently are seen here.
3. What is the real reason for the success of federalism in India?
• The constitutional provisions are laid out very clearly
• The nature of democratic politics has ensured its success
• There is respect for diversity
• The creation of Linguistic States , the flexibility shown by the Indian political leaders in Language policy and the significant changes made in the Centre –State relationships
4. What was the relationship between the centre and state when different parties ruled at the centre and state levels till 1990?
• When different parties ruled at the centre and state levels the parties at the centre tried
to undermine the power of states.
• The central government misused the constitution often to dismiss the state governments that were controlled by other parties. This is against the spirit of federalism.
5. Write a note on the Local bodies that exist in Urban areas?
• Municipalities are setup in towns. Big cities have Municipal Corporations .
• Both Municipalities and Municipal Corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of the people’s representatives.
• C]Municipal Chairman is the head of the Municipality and Mayor for Municipal Corporation.
LONG ANSWERS QUESTIONS : [5 MARKS]
1.What are the main features of Federalism ?
• 1.In federalism there are two or more tires of government but both of the tiers rule over the same citizens.
• Powers of every level are clearly written in the constitution and no one is authorized to cross its limits.
• The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government.
• In federalism, courts are known as the guardians of constitution.
Important Questions NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Federalism
Question. What is the official post for the chaiperson of a Municipal Corporation?
Question. How is a federal government different from the unitary form of government? Why are federations preferred these days?
Ans. Difference between federal and unitary forms of government:
(i) Unitary government has only one level of government whereas a federal government has two or more levels of government.
(ii) In unitary government, the sub-units are subordinate to the centre, whereas in a federation, central government cannot encroach on the rights of state governments.
(iii) In Unitary system, centre can order the sub- units with cannot happen in federation.
A federation is preferred because :
(i) It helps in making administration effective and efficient.
(ii) It helps to accommodate all diverse groups.
Question. Highlight any three steps taken by India towards making it a federation.
Ans. (i) Reorganisation of states on linguistic basis.
(ii) Centre state relations are well defined.
(iii) Decentralisation at Panchayat level.
Question. Describe any three provisions of amendment made in Indian Constitution in 1992 for making three tier government more effective and powerful.
Ans. The various provisions of the constitutional amendment of 1992, made the third tier of our democracy more powerful. Its provisions include –
(a) Now it is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
(b) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executives of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes.
(c) At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
(d) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
(e) The State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from state to state.
Question. How are the powers divided between the states and centre? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) There is three-fold distribution of legislative powers :
(a) Union list : Union lists consist of 97 subjects. It includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communication and currency.
(b) State list : State list consists of 66 subjects. It contains subjects of state and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation.
(c) Concurrent list : Concurrent list consists of 47 subjects. It includes subjects of common interest to both such as education, forest trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.
(ii) Union Government can make laws on the subjects which are not covered under these lists. These subjects are put in residuary list.
Question. Much of the official work in Indian state is done in which language?
Ans. Much of the official work in Indian states is done in the language of the state.
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