CBSE Class 10 Social Science Political Parties Notes Set A

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CHAPTER – 6

POLITICAL PARTIES

Political party – a group of people who come together to contest elections hold and power in the government.

1. (Characteristics)

→ agree on some policies and programmers for the society for collective good

→ Persuade people why their policies are better.

→ Thus implement it by winning popular support elections

→ involve partisanship (part of the society)

→ reflects fundamental political division in a society.

2. Three components of political party.

a) the leaders

b) the active members

c) the followers

3. Functions of political parties –

a) Parties contest elections

b) Parties put forward different policies and programmers and voters choose from them –

A govt. puts its policies based on the line taken by ruling party.

c) Makes laws for the country – abide to the leader of the party.

d) Parties form and run govt.

e) Opposition parties –voice their views and criticize the govt. for its failures.

f) Parties shape public opinion(from pressure group, organization)

g) They provide people access to govt. Machinery and welfare schemes –(it it easy to approach local party leader than a govt. officer)

4. Why the need of a party

a) every candidate in election will be independent.

b) Cannot make promises to the people about any major policy changes.

c) Even if formed – its utility will remain uncertain.

d) Will be accountable to their constituency – no one will be responsible as to how the country run.

 class_10_social%20science_concept_2

6. National political parties – They are wide parties- have their units in various state- all follow the same policies and programmes decided at national level. (mainly seen in federal
system)
Criteria For a party to
become National party - secure at least six percent of total votes in Lok
Sabha elections or Assembly election in four states and wins at least four seats in Loksabha.
State party                     Regional parties-
                                     Secures at least 6 percent of the total votes in an election
                                     to legislative Assembly of a state and wins at least two
DMK, Kerala Congress     seats, is recognized as a state party.
Telugu Desam , AIADMK
RashtriaJanatha Dal

8) Challenges to political parties –
 Lack of internal democracy within parties
 Dynastic succession- an ordinary worker may rise in top in a party people who do not have adequate experience or support came to power – with various close people.
 Money and muscle power – Rich people and companies influence on party decisions.
 Do not offer meaningful choice to the voters – leaders shift from one party to another?
 Not much difference in their policies.

9) Efforts taken to reform political parties and its leaders –
 Prevented defection (changing party after elected) – if they do so they will lose the seat
 Order by Supreme Court to reduce the influence of money and criminals – candidate, must file affidavit giving details of criminal cases pending.
 Political parties should file their income tax returns.

10) Suggestion offered to make more reforms – Yet to be accepted –
 Law to regulate the internal affairs to political parties (to maintain a register of its members, judge party disputes)
 Quota for women (at least 1/3)
 Govt. should give parties money to support election expense.
 Pressure from people on political (through petitions, agitations, publicity).
 Increase the degree of public participation

SHORT ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS –[3MARKS]

Q.1: - Why do we need political parties?
 Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a democracy.
 For most ordinary citizens, political parties are equal to democracy.
 Political parties helped in making public opinion and forming the govt.

Q.2: - Describe the merits of a multi party system .
 More than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others.
 This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.
 In India we have multi party system and the coalition govt. for last 15 years which benefits all sections of the population.

Q.3: - What are the characteristics of a political party?
 It is a group of people coming together to contest elections and share power.
 It agrees on some policies and programmers for the society with a view to promote collective good.
 It seeks to implement these policies by viewing popular support through elections.
 It is known by which part it stands for, which policies it supports and whose interest it upholds.

Q.4: - What is the role of opposition party in democracy?
 Constructive criticism of govt.
 Restriction of arbitrariness of ruling party
 Safeguard, liberty and rights of the people
 Well prepared to form govt.
 Expression of public opinion

Q.5:-Explain some measures to strengthen the election system of India.
 Many people are of the opinion that with the purpose to check the misuse of money power, provision of state funding of elements should be made.
 Laws should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties to maintain a register of its members to follow its own constitution, to have an independent authority and to hold open election to the highest post.
 Effort should be made to discourage inefficient candidates from contesting elections.

Q.6:-How can an ordinary citizen contribute in reforming the political parties?
 Ordinary citizens can put pressure on political parties through petitions, publicity and agitations.
 Pressure groups and movements and the media can play an important role in it.
 Educated people should join the political parties because the quality of democracy depends on
 the degree of public participation.
 It is difficult to reform politics without taking part in it and simply criticizing it from outside.

Q7:- When does a political party get recognition as a “National party” and “State party”?
 A party that secures at least 6% of total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly
 elections in four states and wins at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a national party.
 A party that secures at least 6% of total in an election to the legislative Assembly of a state and wins at least two seats is recognized as a state party.

LONG ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

Q.1: - What are the main functions of a political party?
 To contest election
 Forming policies and programmes
 Making laws
 Parties form and run govt.
 To play an active role of opposition
 Shaping public opinion
 Access to govt. machinery and welfare schemes

Q.2: - What are the challenges faced by political parties in India?
Following points can be given with explanation as the challenges of political parties in India—
 Lack of internal democracy
 Lack of transparency
 Use of money and muscle power
 Not providing meaningful choice to the voter

Q.3:- Explain the different forms of party systems existing in various countries.
There are three forms of party systems existing in the world-
 Single party system : under this system only one party is allowed to function. This system cannot be considered a good option because this is not a democratic option.
Eg-Communist party of China
 Two/Bi-party system: under this system only two parties are allowed to function.One in organization and other in opposition. This system is a better option to single party system
but cannot be considered perfect.
E.g- USA &UK.
 Multi party system: If several parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others it is called multi party system. This system leads to political instability at the same time this system allows a variety of interest, opinions to enjoy political representation. E.g-India.

Q.4: - What is the role of opposition party in democracy?
 Constructive criticism of govt.
 Restriction of arbitrariness of ruling party
 Safeguard, liberty and rights of the people
 Well prepared to form govt.
 Expression of public opinion

QUESTION BANK
1. What is Mid-Term election?
2. What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
3. How has multi-party system strengthened democracy in India? Explain
4. Which national party of India opposes imperialism and communalism? Discuss main objectives of that party.
5. Why is there a lack of internal democracy within the political parties in India? Explain with Examples.
6. “Political parties play a major role in democracy.”Justify this statement.
7. What do you mean by the term defection? What measures were adopted to prevent this Practice?
8. The political scene is the mass of many parties. How do politicians manage these Coalitions? Give your opinion.
9. Political parties are partial, partisan and lead to partition. Parties divide the people.” give your opinion.

Important Questions NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Political Parties


Question. “Serious efforts were made by the legal organizations to reform political parties in India. “Support the statement.

Ans. Efforts made by legal organizations to reform political parties in India include :

(i) To check defection, the Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLA’s and MP’s from changing parties.

(ii) The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals by making it mandatory to produce an affidavit by the candidates giving details of property and criminal cases pending on them.

(iii) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organizational election and file their income tax returns.


Question. What is mean by ‘defection’ in democracy? Explain.

Ans. (i) Defection in politics means moving of a person from one party to another party for some personal benefit. It means changing party allegiance from the party on which the person got elected to a different party.

The anti-defection rule prevents it.


Question. “Modern democracies cannot exist without political parties.” Examine the statement. 

Ans. In all the democracies, citizens have rights but they should be able to claim these rights.

1. When the elected political parties become the ruling party then they give these rights to the citizens legally and practically.

2. In all the democracies, people need good governance, for this we need political parties which contest in election

3. The society needs rapid development, this work is done by the political parties. They can introduce many new policies and program for the welfare of the citizens.

4. The Opposition political party also plays a vital role by finding mistakes in the work of the ruling party so that the development stays on course.

5. If there were no political parties in such cases we would only have independent candidates contesting election with individual agenda and not a national agenda.

6. The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. Large societies need a way to bring various representatives together so that a responsible government could be formed.

We can say that parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.


Question. Explain two functions each, of the ruling party as well of the opposition parties.

Ans. Functions of the ruling parties :

(i) They play a major role in making laws and policies for the country.

(ii) They form the government and run the country for the benefit of its citizens.

Functions of the opposition parties :

(i) They oppose the government by voicing different views about policies and actions taken.

(ii) They criticise government for its failure and wrong practices.

(iii) They mobilise opposition to the government, which ensures that the government functions in an upright manner.


Question. What do you understand by the bi-party system? Write its one merit and one demerit.

Ans. Bi-party system :

(i) In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties. It is also known as Bi-party system.

(ii) In this system, the government is formed by one party and the other plays the role of opposition. Merit–This system allows stability of government as no coalition is there.

Demerit–In this system, only two main parties have a serious chance of winning majority seats to form the government. Hence people do not really have choices.


Question. What is a multi-party system? Explain merits and demerits of multi-party system.

Ans. Multi-party system : If several parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with other, we call it a multi-party system.

India adopted a Multi party system because :

(i) There is social diversity in India.

(ii) India is such a large and diverse country which cannot easily be represented by two or three parties.

Merits :

(i) This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

(ii) People can make a choice between several candidates.

Demerits :

(i) No one party is likely to gain power alone. Therefore, it leads to difficulty in functioning of the government.

(ii) Leads to political instability and often appears to be very messy with too many leaders.


Question. Name any one political party that has national level political organisation but not recognised as the national political party.

Ans. Samajwadi party, Samta Party, Rashtriya Janta Dal


Question. Examine any two institutional amendments made by different institutions to reform political parties and their leaders.

Ans. (i) The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLA’s and MP’s from changing parties. This was done because many elected representatives were indulging in defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she loses the seat in the legislature or the parliment.

(ii) The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals.

Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. The new system has made a lot of information available to the public. But there is no system to check if the information given by the candidates is true and complete.

(iii) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organizational elections and file their income tax returns.

(iv) The parties have started doing so but sometimes it is mere formality. It is not clear if this step has led to greater internal democracy in political parties.


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