CBSE Class 10 Social Science Lifelines Of National Economy Notes

Download CBSE Class 10 Social Science Lifelines Of National Economy Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 10 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 10. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 10 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 10 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 10 Social Science given our website

Lifelines Of National Economy Class 10 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 10 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Lifelines Of National Economy in standard 10. These exam notes for Grade 10 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Lifelines Of National Economy Notes Class 10 Social Science

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Lifelines of National Economy

I. Roadways :

India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Its importance can be viewed.

(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower.

(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.

(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope & as such can traverse mountains.

(iv) It is economical.

(v) It provides door to door services.

(vi) It is used as feeder to other modes of transport.

II. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways :

- The Govt. has launched a major road development project linking Delhi- Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai & Delhi by six-lane super highways.

- The North-South corridors linking Srinagar [Jammu & Kashmir] & Kanyakumari [T.N.] & East-West Corridor Connecting silcher (Assam) & Porbander (Gujarat). The major objective of these super highways is to reduce time & distance.

III. Railways :

- The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been largely influence by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.

- The Himalyan mountains regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief sparse population & each of economic opportunities.

- The northern plains provide most favourable condition having high population density.

- Rivers also create problem for lay down of railway tracts.

IV.Pipelines :

Pipelines transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. Its initial cost is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It is used for transporting crude oil, petroleum product & natural gas.

3 Important Networks : 

1. Oil field in Assam to Kanpur (U.P.), via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad.

2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar. In Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi & Panipat.

3. Gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in UP via Vijaypur in Madhya Pradesh.

V. International Trade :

- The exchange of goods among people; states & countries is referred to as trade. Trade between two countries is called International Trade.

- Exports and imports are the components of trade. The balance of a trade of a country is the difference b/w its export and import.

- When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called favourable balance of trades.

VI. Tourism as a Trade :

- Tourism has proved itself as one of the most important. aspect of trade. Tourism in India has grown substantially. It helps as

- Promotion of National Integration.

- Provide support to local handicrafts

- Provides support to cultural pursuits.

- Development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.


Key points to remember

· Road Density -The length of road per 100 sq kms of area is known as density of roads.

· Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways -It is major road development project linking the four metropolitan cities-Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai by six lane super highways.

· North-South Corridor- Roads linking Srinagar to Kanya Kumari.

· East-West Corridor- Road slinking Siltier (Assam) to Porbandar(Gujarat)

· National Highways- Major roads connecting state capitals and metropolitan cities of a country.

· State Highways- Roads linking a state capitals with different district headquarters.

· International Trade-Trade between two countries is called international trade

Export: When the goods are sent to other country for sale it is called as export.
Import: When the goods come from other country to be sold in India it is called import.
Balance of Payment: This is the difference between export and import of a country.

Facts that Matter

1. The development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement to their destination. Transport plays an important role in the economy. Because of transport, raw materials reach to the factory or industry and finished products reach to the consumer. Transport has helped in both production and distribution of goods.

2. Apart from transport, mode of communications, like telephone and internet makes flawless flow of information possible. Today, the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport and developed communication system.

3. Transport can be classified into land, water and air transport.

4. Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Roadways have preceded railways. The growing importance of road transport in comparison with rail transport is because the construction cost of roads is much lower. It provides door to door services and thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower. It is used as feeder to other modes of transport.

5. In India, roads are classified in six classes according to their capacity—(i) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways, (ii) National Highways (iii) State Highways, (iv) District Roads, (v) Other Roads and (vi) Border Roads.

6. Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used for their construction such as metalled and unmetalled roads. Metalled roads are all weather roads whereas unmetalled roads go out of use in the rainy season.

7. Road density means the length of road per 100 sq. km of area. Distribution of road is not uniform in the country. Density of all roads varies from only 10 km in Jammu & Kashmir to 375 km in Kerala with the national average of 75 km.

8. Railways
The Indian railways have a network of 7,031 stations spread over a route length of 63,221 km with a fleet of 7817 locomotives, 5321 passenger service vehicles, 4904 other coach vehicles and 228,170 wagons as on 31 March, 2004. The Indian railways is the largest public sector undertaking of India. The first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km. It is organised into 16 railway zones. Lifelines of National Economy

9. Railways are the prime mode of transportation for goods and passengers in India. Railways also make it possible to conduct varied activities like business, sightseeing and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.

10. The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.

11. The northern plains provide most favourable conditions having high population density, vast level land, and rich agricultural resources.

12. Today, the railways have become more important in our national economy than all other means of transport put together. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well. For example, many passengers travel without tickets.

13. Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. Earlier it was used to transport water but these days it is used to transport crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertiliser factories and big thermal power plants. Even solids can be transported through pipelines when converted into slurry.

14. Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.

15. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.

16. India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 3,700 km are navigable by mechanised boats. The workable waterways include the Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans, Buckingham canal, Brahamani, East-West canal and Damodar Valley Corporation Canal. The following waterways have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government:
— The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)—N.W. No. 1.
— The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)—N.W. No. 2.
— The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Komman, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km)—N.W. No. 3.

17. With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km., India is dotted with 12 major ports and 181 medium and minor ports. These ports handle 95% of India’s foreign trade.

18. The name of some major ports are—Kandla, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Kolkata, etc. Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious, natural and well-sheltered harbour.

19. The air travel is the fastest mode of transport. It can cover difficult terrains and long oceanic stretches with great ease. The air transport was nationalised in 1953. Airways are of two types—Domestic and International.

20. Air India provides international air services. Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation in its offshore operations, to the inaccessible areas and difficult terrains of north-eastern states and interior parts of J & K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

21. Communication refers to exchange of ideas, messages, emotions, either written or oral, from one place to another. There are two ways of communication—personal communication and mass communication. Mass communication includes television, radio, press, films, etc.

22. The Indian postal network handles parcels as well as personal written communications. The first-class mail includes cards and envelopes. They are carried by land and air transport. The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.

23. Six mail channels have been introduced by Indian postal network for quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities.

24. India has one of the largest telephone networks in Asia. Special provisions have been made by the government by extending twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country to strengthen the flow of information.

25. Mass Communication is a communication in which masses are communicated at the same time by one source. Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.

26. All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country.

27. Doordarshan is the national television channel of India. It is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, education to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.

28. India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. Largest numbers of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.

29. India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, video feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

30. The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is a place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two or more countries is termed as international trade but trade which occurs in a region within the same country is called local trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. Export and import are the components of trade. The difference between export and import is known as balance of trade.

31. India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the commodities of export are the agricultural and allied products, ores and minerals, gems and jewellery, chemical and allied products, engineering goods and petroleum products. Major imports are petroleum and its products, pearls and precious stones, inorganic chemicals, coal, coke and briquettes and machinery.

32. Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades. Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, economic tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism. Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple towns of South India are important destinations of tourists in India.

33. Our country earns foreign exchange through tourism. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.

Flow-Learning

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Lifelines Of Indian Economy_4

Words that Matter

1. Density of roads: The length of road per sq km of area is known as density of roads.

2. State Highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.

3. District roads: Roads which connect the district headquarters with other places of the district are called district roads.

4. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: These are six lane highways connecting major cities and ports of the country for speedy movement of goods and passengers.

5. Rural roads: Roads which link rural areas and villages with towns are classified as rural roads.

6. Border roads: Strategically important roads in the bordering areas of the country are called border roads.

 

Important Terms and Concept

1. Transport : Movement of people and goods from one place to another place is called transport.

2. Traders : Traders are the people who make the products come to the consumers by transportation.

3. Golden Quadrilateral : Golden Quadrilateral road connects north with south and east with west. It connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. It is 6 lanes good quality super express highway. Its total length is 5846 km.

4. National Highways : National Highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).

5. State Highways : Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.

6. District Highways : District highways are roads that connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

7. CPWD : The Central Public Works Department of India commonly referred to as the CPWD, is a central government owned authority in charge of public sector works. The Central Public Works Department, under the Ministry of Urban Development, builds and maintains public buildings.

8. National Highway Authority of India : The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is an autonomous agency of the Government of India, responsible for management of a network of over 50,000 km of National Highways out of 1,15,000 km in India.

9. Water Transport : Water transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal, river, etc.

10. Air Transport : Air transport is a transportation system for moving passengers or goods by air.

11. Communication : The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium is called communication.

12. Mass Communication : Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. It is the means through which one can communicate with several people at the same time.

13. Land Transport : Land transport is the transport or movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another on land. Two main forms of land transport are rail transport and road transport.

14. Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna : 'Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna' provides special provisions to every village in the country and links every village to a major town in the country by an all season commutable road.

15. Border Roads : Border Roads Organization, a Government of India undertaking, constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.

16. Road density : The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads.

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE 
1.Why is air travel preferred in North-East?
Uneven and mountain terrain,Dense forests, Presence of big rivers,frequent floods, international frontiers.

2.Write three advantage of waterways.
Cheapest means of transport,can carry heavy and bulky goods, do not cause air pollution.

3.Name three National waterways .
The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia
Brahamaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri
West Coast Canal in Kerala.

LONG ANSWER TYPE
1. What are the advantages of transport?
Facilitates easy and free movement of people from one place to another.
Helps to carry goods and materials from one place to another
Helps in production and distribution of goods.
Connect markets with the production centres.
Promotes easy accessibility of goods and services.
Helps in development of trade and commerce.
Helps to increase the volume of the Trade.

2. What are the problems faced by Indian roadways?
Road network is inadequate for increasing volume of traffic.
About half of the roads are unmetalled.
The National Highways are inadequate and are poorly maintained.
The roadways are highly congested in cities and are lacking safety measures.
Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Lack of proper security measures.

3. What are the Problems Faced by Indian Railways?
Requires huge investment at the time of installation.
Maintenance and upkeep is very costly.
Construction is difficult and costly in uneven and high hills and deserts.
Not suitable for transportation of perishable goods.
Ticket-less travellers.
Thefts and damaging of railway property.
Unnecessarily chain pulling to stop train.
Gauge Conversions.
Sinking and slipping of tracks in rains.
Modernization and Electrification.

4. Why is transport and communication called lifelines of a country?
Connects far lying areas of the country
They benefit trade and commerce
Help in the development of agriculture and industry.
Helpful during calamities
Promotes unity of the country

 

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