Resources And Development Class 10 Social Science Revision Notes
Class 10 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Resources And Development in standard 10. These exam notes for Grade 10 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Resources And Development Notes Class 10 Social Science
Are those resources which can be renewed or recycled or reproduced by physical or chemical processes are known as renewable resources Example: Forests, Solar energy, Wind energy etc
NON – RENEWABLE RESOURCES
Are those resources which take millions of years in their formation and can not be renewed or reproduced are known as renewable resources Example: Coal, petroleum and natural gas.
These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
• All those things which are composed of nonliving things are called a biotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.
Are those resources which are operated by an individual or group of individual.
Example: land, pastures, ponds, water in wells etc.
COMMUNITY OWNED RESOURCES
Are those resources which are managed by the all members of the community.
Example: Grazing grounds, burial grounds, public parks, picnic spots etc.
Are those resources which are related to a particular nation. Land resource are within the political boundaries and oceanic resource up to 12 nautical miles
Example: Minerals, forests, wildlife, oceanic resources etc.
Potential Resources: Are those resources whose quality and quantity is unknown because of the lack of technology. Stock resources: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these.
Stock resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.
Stock resources: are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘knowhow’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
It is the process of developing the resources in order to make them useful for satisfying human wants. Some resources cannot be used directly. They have to be processed to make them useful for satisfying our wants.
Example: Land has to be cleared and ploughed for growing crops. Water has to be taken to the field to irrigate.
PROBLEMS CREATED BY INDISCRIMINATE USE OF RESOURCE BY MAN
a. Many resources got depleted. Ex: Forest
b. Resources got accumulated in the hands of few people. The society is divided into rich and poor.
c. Global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental degradation are other problems.
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
• The economic development which does not damage the environment and at the same time takes care of the needs of the future generations is called sustainable development
• Sustainable Development is important because:
1) Many of the resources are nonrenewable and exhaustible. Over exploitation of these resources will affect the needs of our future generations.
2) Environmental pollution has become a major threat to the survival of human beings
• Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization of resources.
STAGES OF RESOURCE PLANNING
a) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF RESOURCES : Surveying, mapping and the measurement of the qualities and the quantities of the resources are the important activities undertaken at this stage.
b) PLANNING FOR EXPLOITATION : Develop a planning structure with suitable technology, skill and institutional setup.
c) MATCH RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLANS WITH NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS.
IMPORTANCE OF RESOURCE PLANNING
It is necessary for the balanced development of India.
1) Some regions of India are rich in certain resources and poor in some other resources.
Example: Rajasthan is poor in water resources but rich in solar and wind energy.
2) Some regions are self sufficient while other regions are very poor in important resources. Ex: Madhya Pradesh is rich in many resources but Ladakh is poor in resources.
3) Wastage of resources can be avoided by planning.
4) Environmental pollution can be reduced.
5) Over exploitation of resources can be avoided.
• Planned use of resources in order to meet the present needs and to store a part for the future generations is called resource conservation.
It is necessary because
1) Many resources are non-renewable and exhaustible. If we conserve them we can use them for a longer period of time.
2) Conservation of resources helps us to reduce wastage. It will help in economic progress.
3) Resource conservation helps us to protect the environment.
IDEAS OF GANDHIJI ABOUT THE CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES.
• According to Gandhiji, “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.
• Greedy and selfish individuals and the exploitative nature of modern technology are the root cause for resource depletion.
• He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with production by masses.
Key Concepts to Remember-
• Renewable Resources- Resources which can be reproduces or renewed by physical, chemical or mechanical process. Eg.Solar, wind.
• Non-Renewable Resources-Resources which get exhausted with their use.Eg. Coal, Petroleum.
• Individual resources-Owned by individuals Eg. Own land, House.
• Community Owned Resources- Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community Eg. Parks, Playground.
• National Resources-Resources which belong to the nation. Eg. Roads, Railways.
• International resources-Resources which no individual country can utilize. Eg. Oceanic waters beyond 200 km
• Potential resources-Resources found in a region but not in use. Eg. Solar Energy in Rajasthan, wind in Gujarat.
• Stock- Resources available but do not have appropriate technology to access.Eg Lack of technical know how to use hydrogen and oxygen as source of energy.
• Reserve- Subset of stock. Can be used for future needs.Eg. Water in the dams, forest resources.
• Development of Resources
• It means the extraction and utilization of resources using the available technology, to satisfy human needs.
• Sustainable development
a)Development should take place without damaging the environment.
b)Present development status should continue and grow in future.
c)Development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future
• Land under important relief features in India –
• Land Degradation
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it.
• Soil erosion
The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is soil erosion.
• Reasons for soil erosion include
a) Human activities like deforestation, over grazing, construction, mining, defective method of farming etc
b) Natural forces like wind, glacier and water flow
Types of Erosion
• Gully Erosion-the running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels known as gullies.This makes the land bad land and in the Chambal basin such land is known as ravines.
• Sheet Erosion-When top soil over large area is washed away it is known as sheet erosion.
• Methods to prevent Soil Erosion in Hilly Area
a) Ploughing along the contour lines-contour ploughing
b) Terrace cultivation
c) Strip farming
d) Shelter belts
Question. Distinguish between Potential and developed resources.
• Potential resource-resources which have been found in a region but have not been utilized.
• Developed resource-resources which are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilization.
Question. Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar.
• Bangar-It is the old Alluvial soil. Less Fertile, it has a lot of concentration of kankar nodules
• Khadar-New alluvium, highly fertile.
Question . Describe the land use pattern in India.
• Pasture land- land under permanent pasture is very low and further decreasing. But we are still managing the cattle population in India by preparing fodder for them
• Net sown area- It is about 54 percent in India. The pattern of Net Sown Area varies from region to region.
• Forest area- It is far lower than the desired 33 percentage of the geographical area.
It is considered essential for maintaining the ecological balance.
• Waste land- It includes rocky, arid,desert areas and land put to non agricultural uses.
Question. Resource planning is the single solution for sustainable development .Justify.
• An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace.
• If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues the future of our planet is in danger.
• Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
• Utilizing the resources in a judicial manner so as our future generation is not deprived of them.
Question. Find out reasons for low percentage of Net Sown Area in Arunachal Pradesh.
Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands Reasons for low percentage of Net Sown Area
• Rocky, mountainous, not suitable for agriculture
• Climate is harsh
• Heavy rain hampers the agricultural activities
Question.What are the advantages of renewable resources
• The resources which can be used again and again and can be reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources
• These resources take a short time for renewal.
• These are free gifts of nature
• Renewable resources are pollution free and therefore environment friendly
• Example are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, forests and wildlife etc.
Important Questions NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Resources and Development
Question. What are resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised called?
Ans. Potential resources
Question. How is over irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab?
Ans. Over irrigation in Punjab causes the lowering in fertility rate of the soil because of water logging leading to increased salinity and alkalinity of the soil.
Question. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments.
Ans. (i) Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs.
(ii) It is the most important renewable natural resource.
(iii) It is the medium of plant growth.
(iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
Question. Distinguish between red soil and laterite soil stating any three points of distinction.
Ans. Red soils
(i) Red soil is formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(ii) It is highly porous and less fertile but where it is deep it is fertile.
(iii) It is less crystalline.
(iv) It is red in colour due to presence of iron in it. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
(i) It is formed by the leaching process in the heavy rainfall areas of tropical India.
(ii) It is less fertile, only grass grows on it in abundance.
(iii) It is crystalline.
(iv) It is found in hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Assam and Meghalaya.
Question. Which geographical factors are responsible for the evolution of black soil? Why is it considered the most suitable for growing cotton?
Ans. (i) Climatic conditions along with present rock material are important factors for making of black soil. The parent rock is volcanic rocks.
(ii) It is ideal for growing cotton because of the following reasons :
(a) It has capacity to hold moisture.
(b) It is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate and potash.
(c) Deep cracks in the soil help in aeration.
Question. Describe any three measures of controlling land degradation.
Ans. (i) Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help in controlling of land degradation.
(ii) Planting of shelter belts, control on overgrazing, stabilisation of sand dune by growing thorny bushes, are important ways.
(iii) Proper management of wastelands, control of mixing activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub-urban areas. These are some of the methods to check land degradation.
Question. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? Why is it essential to have resource planning?
Ans. Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilization of resources.
(a) As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generation.
(b) Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.
(c) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over exploitation.
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
(ii) Evolving a planned structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Match the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Q1: Why is resource planning important in country like India?
Ans: Resource Planning in India is important in a country like India because
(a) There is enormous diversity in the availability of resources.
(b) There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources and deficient in other resources
Q2: Mention the most satisfactory feature of land use pattern of our country?
Ans: The most satisfactory feature of land use pattern of our country is the Barren and Waste land has reduced from 12.01% (1960-61) to 6.29% (2002-03).
Q3: Which is the most unsatisfactory feature of our land use pattern?
Ans: Land under forests has changed marginally. Forest area is 22.54% which is far lower than the desired 33% as outlined in the National Forest Policy(1952).
Q4: Why has the land under forest not increased much since1960-61?
Ans: Large scale development projects, industrialization and urbanization as well as agricultural expansion have widely reduced forest cover in various parts of our country. Though afforestation and social forestry measures have been adopted, it has lead to only a marginal increase in the forest area.
Q6:DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS:
Ans A)RESOURCE-everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs ,provided ,it is technologically accessible,economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as resource.
b)SOIL EROSION-the denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.
c)BADLAND-the running water,cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies .the land thus becomes unfit for cultivation ,is known as badland.
Q7:EXPLAIN THE HUMAN ACTIVITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR LAND DEGRADATION IN INDIA?
Ans Some human activities which contributed significantly in land degradation in our country are following MINING AND DEFORESTATION-Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening .In states like Jharkhand .Chhattisgarh,Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation.
2 OVERGRAZING: Due to overgrazing grasses are uprooted and land is exposed to soil erosion .In states like Gujarat ,Rajasthan ,Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation .
3.OVER IRRIGATION: it is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil .in the states of punjab ,haryana and western uttar pradesh over irrigation is the main cause of land degradation.
4:MINERAL PROCESSING:the mineral proccessing like grinding of limestone for cement industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere.it retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land .
5.INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS :industrial effluents as waste .which are discharged without treatment,have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Q8:WHAT ARE THE MEASURES TAKEN TO CONTROL LAND DEGRADATION IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF INDIA?
Ans.Measures taken to control land degradation in different regions of india are following:
1.AFFORESTRATION AND PROPER MANAGEMENT OF GRAZING-it can help to some extent .it helps in binding the soil and reduces the chances of occurence of.
2.PLANTING OF SHELTER BELTS OF PLANTS ,CONTROL ON OVER GRAZING.
3.STABILISATION OF SAND DUNES BY GROWING THORNY BUHES are the suitable measures taken in arid and semi arid regions.they help in binding the soil with the roots and also
reduce the speed of wind.
4.PROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE LANDS,CONTROL OF MINING ACTIVITIES
,PROPER DISCHARGE AND DISPOSAL INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS AND WASTES after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub urban areas.
Q9:HOW HAVE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LED TO MORE
CONSUMPTION OF RESOURCES?
Ans.Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.in this process they often consume resources more in quantity which cause depletion of resources .as more technological development occurs ,there is increased need of input and utilization of resources .for example, more factories providing employment to more people is a necessity .for the factory ,land and metal (for machines)are used. For this mining of minerals increases causing land degradation and depletion of mineral resources of a certain area. As technical or technological development is closely linked to economic development we can say that both of these have led to more consumption of resources.
Q10:SUGGEST METHODS TO CONTROL SOIL EROSION.
Ans Methods are as follows:
1.CONTOUR PLOUGHING-ploughing in a wrong way i.e. and down the slope form channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion ,whereas ploughing along the contour lines can
decelerate the flow of water down the slopes .this helps in controlling soil erosion.
2. TERRACE CULTIVATION-steps can be cut on the slopes making terraces .terrace farming restricts the speed of running water and controls soil erosion .western and central
Himalayas have well developed terrace farming.
3. STRIP CROPPING-large fields can be divided into strips .strips of grass are left to grow between the crops .this breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
4.SHELTER BELT-planting lines of trees to create shelter also helps in breaking up of the force of the wind .rows of such trees are called shelter belts .these shelter belts have contributed
significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the deserty in western india.
Q11:EXPLAIN BLACK SOIL UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADSA)
FORMATION B)DISTRIBUTION C)NUTRIENTS D)OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Ans The black soil is black in colour and is also known as regur soil.
a) Formation-it is believed that climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil. It is made of lava flows.
b)Distribution-this type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (basalt )region spread over northwest Deccan plateau .it covers the plateaus of Maharashtra , saurashtra, malwa , Madhya pradesh ,Chhattisgarh and extend in the southeast direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
c) Nutrients-it is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. It is generally poor in phosphoric contents.
d)Other characteristics-black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
It is made up of extremely fine clayey material and is well known for its capacity to hold water.
It develops deep cracks during hot weather which helps in the proper aeration of the soil .it is sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre monsoon period.
Q12:GIVE A DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA.
Ans .The total area of india is 3.28 million sq.km.according to the land use data ,records are available only for about 93%of the total area .the land is used for following purposes:
1. Net sown area-43.41%area of the total reporting area is in this category. The pattern of NSA varies greatly one state to another .it is over 80%of the total area in punjab and haryana and less than 10%in arunachal pradesh ,Mizoram , Manipur and Andaman and nicobar islands.
2. Fallow land-fallow other than the current fallow land is 3.82%of the total reported area. These lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years as either these are of poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. If these are included in the NSA then the %of NSA in india comes to about 54%of the total reporting area.
3. Permanent pasture-the land under permanent pasture has decreased in last few decades .it is quite difficult for the farmers to feed huge cattle .population on this pasture land and it has affected the production of milk and other animal products.
4. Forest area -forest area in our country is far lower than the desired 33%of the geographical area, as it was outlined in the national forest policy (1952).in our country 22.57%of the total reported area is under forest. It was considered essential to have one third of the total area under forests for the maintenance of the ecological balance. The livelihood of the millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it.
5. Land not available for cultivationa.
Barren waste land- it includes rocky, arid and desert areas. Land under this category reduced from 12.01% to 6.29% which is the most satisfactory feature of our land use pattern.
b. Land put to other non-agricultural uses- it includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. it increased from 4.95% to 7.29% in last few decades due to increasing population,
industrialization and urbanization.
Q13:What are the problems associated with indiscriminate use of resources? how can it be solved?
Ans.Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life. It was believed that resources are the free gifts of nature . as a result, human beings used them
indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems:
a. Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
b. Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn, divided the society into rich and poor.
c. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
d. SOLUTION: an equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Q14: Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources.
Q15: Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources.
Q16: distinguish between individual resources and national resources.
Q17: Name four broad types of soils found in India. Mention the two characteristics of a soil which are most important and widespread.
A: four major types of soil found in India are
a. Alluvial soil
b. Black soil
c. Red and yellow soil
d. Laterite soil
Alluvial soil is the most important and widespread soil in India.
Two characteristics of alluvial soil:
a. This soil is formed by deposition of materials brought down by rivers
b. It is highly fertile. It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
Q18: State the diverse relief features of India and mention one significance of each.
A: India has diverse relief features namely mountains, plateaus and plains.
PLAINS: about 43% of the land is plains which is agriculturally and industrially productive.
MOUNTAINS: mountains account for 30% of the total area and are the source of many perennial rivers, promote tourism and development of horticulture.
PLATEAUS: about 27% of the land area of the country are the plateaus which are the storehouse of minerals, forest and fossil fuels. They form the backbone of the country’s
economy in promoting the development of industries.
Q19’ Resources are the functions of human beings’ Justify the statement
Ans The process of transformation of t he resources available in our environment involves an interdependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions. Human beings interact with nature through A The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interdependent technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development .Human beings themselves are essential components of resources .They transform the material available in our environment into resources and use them.
Q20 ‘Resource planning is a complex process’.Justify
Explain three important stages involved in the process of resource planning.
Ans Resource planning is a complex process which involves-:
i)Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying ,mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
ii)Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology,skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
iii)Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans
Q21 Write important features of laterite soil .
Ansi) The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
ii)This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
iii)Humus content is low due to micro-organisms particularly the decomposers ,like bacteria,get
destroyed due to high temperature
iv)Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.
Q22 Describe the characteristics of arid soils.
Ans i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
iii)Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restricts the infiltrations of water.
v)After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of Rajasthan.
Q23Write important features of Red and Yellow soils
Ans i) Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall.
ii)These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline igneous and metamphoric rocks.
iii)It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form
iv) These soils are found in parts of Orissa ,Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats
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