Download CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age Of Industrialization Notes Set B in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 10 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 10. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 10 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 10 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 10 Social Science given our website
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS OF THE LESSON
1. An association of craftsmen or merchants following same craft to protect
2. The members interest and supervise the standard of the work.
3. Tanning. Convert raw hide into leather by soaking in liquid containing tannic acid.
4. Food processing. Technique of chopping and mixing food for making jam, juices, etc.
5. Victorian Britain. Britain during the reign of Queen Victoria.
6. Brewery. A place where beer etc. is brewed commercially. Brewing is a process of infusion, boiling and fermentation.
7. Vagrant.A person without a settled home or regular work.
8. Bourgeois.The upper middle class.
9. Gomastha .An Indian word meaning an agent, a middle man between the merchant and weavers.
10. Stapler.A person who staples or sorts wool according to its fibre.
Production of goods with the help of machines in factories
• The first industrialized Nation-Britain
• Handmade goods to machine made goods in factories, cottage to factory, large scale
production, started in
• England in later parts of 18th Century. In course of time, it affected all systems of production.
Orient. Countries to the east of Mediterranean Sea usually referring to Asia.
BEFORE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
• Production in 17th century, artisans worked for merchants to produce goods, artisans took
raw material from merchants for production .Their cottages functioned as factory .
• Association of producers, trained craft people maintained control over production, restricted
entry of new traders .Coming of factories
COMING UP OF FACTORIES
• Early factories in England came up by the 1730s .
• First symbol of new era -cotton mill
• Many factories sprang up in England
• A series of inventions in carding, twisting, spinning and rolling .
THE PACE OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE
• Cotton and iron and steel industries were the most dynamic industries .
• New industries could not displace traditional ones
• Technological changes occurred slowly
• Steam engine invented by James Watt had no buyers for years .
• New technologies were slow to be accepted .
HAND LABOUR AND STEAM POWER
• In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour .
• In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal .
• Range of products could be produced only with hand labour .
• Demand for intricate design .
• Upper classes preferred things produced by hand .
LIFE OF THE WORKER
• Abundance of labour affected the life of workers badly .
• Labour was seasonal .
• Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to new technology
• Women labours protested against the introduction of spinning jenny .
• Introduction of railways opened greater opportunities .
INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE COLONIES
• Textile industry was the Centre of industrialization in India .
AGE OF INDIAN TEXTILES
• Finer varieties of cotton from India for export .
• A vibrant sea trade operated through pre -colonial ports .
WHAT HAPPENED TO WEAVERS?
• East India Company appointed ”gomasthas “to collect supply from weavers .
• Weavers lost bargaining power and lost lands for settling loans .
MANCHESTER COMES TO INDIA
• By 1950s, India began to import Manchester cotton from Britain .
• With Manchester import Indian export and local market declined .
• Supply of raw cotton in India decreased .
• Weavers were forced to buy cotton at high prices .
FACTORIES COME UP
• Industries were set up in different regions .
• First cotton mill came in Bombay in 1854 .
• 1855 the first jute mill in Bengal .
• 1830s-1840s Dwarakanath Tagore setup six-point stock companies in Bengal .
• Capital was accumulated through other trade network .
• Till the First World War European managing agencies in fact controlled large sectors of Indian industries .
WHERE DID THE WORKERS COME FROM?
• Most of the workers came from Indian villages .
PECULIARITIES OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
• Early Indian cotton mills made coarse cotton yarn .
• During the First World War Manchester imports to India declined .
• Indian factories supplied goods for war needs .
SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES PREDOMINATED
• Most of the Industries were located in Bengal and Bombay .
• A small portion of total industrial labour worked in factories .
• Use of fly shuttle increased handicraft .
MARKET FOR GOODS
• Advertisements helps in creating new consumers .
• Advertisements appear in :
• Street walls
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