CBSE Class 10 Social Science Nationalism In India Notes

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Nationalism In India Class 10 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 10 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Nationalism In India in standard 10. These exam notes for Grade 10 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Nationalism In India Notes Class 10 Social Science

Key Concepts of the lesson:

· Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Satyagraha – The power of Truth & the need to search for truth –Mental strength is more powerful than physical force to win the heart of the oppressor. Novel idea of Satyagraha was first time implemented in South Africa.

· In India the first was at Champaran in 1916 to inspire plantation workers to struggle against oppressive plantation system. In 1917 Satyagraha at Kheda -to support peasants

· In 1918 Satyagraha at Ahmedabad-Among the cotton mill workers.

· ‘Hind Swaraj’- the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi, which emphasised non-co-operation to British rule in India

· The First World War, Khilafat and Non Cooperation

· On 13th April 1919 Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre – Amritsar in Punjab

· The First World War - its effects

· Huge increases in defenses expenditure. Custom duties were raised, Income tax was introduced. There was forced recruitments in rural areas, spread of epidemics

· The Rowlett Act of 1919: It gave the British government enormous power to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

· Non-cooperation programmer was adopted at Nagpur in Dec.1920.

· The peasant movement in Awadh demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar-Bab Ramachandra.

· Inland Emigration Act of 1859: Under this act plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

· Alluri Sitar am Raju led the tribal revolt of Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh

· Khilafat agitation – led by Muhammad Ali & Shaukat Ali.

· Chauri Chaura incident –Violence –withdrawal of Non-Cooperation movement-1922

· Swaraj Party was founded by C.R.Das and Moti Lal Nehru for return to council Politics.

· Simon Commission 1928 and boycott.

· Lahore Congress session and demand for Purna Swaraj in 1929.

· Dandi march and the beginning of civil Disobedience movement

· Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food- salt considered a more effective weapon for protest against Britishers.

· Government’s repressive policy - Gandhi Irwin Pact and failure of round table conference-Relaunching of movement.

· Who participated in the movement?

· The rich peasant communities, the poor peasantry, business class, the industrial workers in Nagpur and a large scale participation of women took active part in the movement.

· Limits of the movement-less participation by untouchables – Ambedker for separate electorate and Poona pact of 1932, luke warm response by some Muslim Political Organization

· Provisions of Poona pact of 1932 – Signed between Dr.Ambedkar & Gandhi ji- It gave depressed classes reserved seats in central provincial councils but they were to be voted by the general electorate.

· The sense of collective belonging- This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles role of folklore and songs- the image of Bharath Mata- Nationalism through icons or symbols of representation of History. The first image was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay & painted by Abhanindra Nath Tagore.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Nationalism In India Notes Set A

 

Words that Matter

1. Rowlatt Act: The Act empowered the government to imprison a person without a trial.

2. Satyagraha: Following the path of truth and non-violence.

3. Khadi: Indian handmade cotton cloth.

4. Dandi March: Famous Salt March (Dandi March) by Gandhi from his ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.

5. Forced Recruitment: The colonial state forced people to join the army.

6. Boycott: The refusal to participate in activities, or buy and use things. It is usually a form of protest.

7. Begar: Peasants were forced to work in landlords’ field without any payment of wages.

8. Swaraj: The word swaraj is comprised of ‘swa’ and ‘raj’. The word ‘swa’ means ‘self’ and ‘raj’ means ‘rule’ which together means ‘self-government’.

9. Purna Swaraj: Complete independence.

10. Harijan: The men of God, the name given to the ‘untouchables’ or dalits (oppressed) by Mahatma Gandhi.

11. Picket: Blocking the entrance to a shop, factory or office.

Dateline

1. 1918–1919: Peasant movement in U.P.

2. 1919: The Rowlatt Act, Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.

3. 1919: Hartal (Strike) against the Rowlatt Act. 

4. 1921: Non-Cooperation and Khilafat movement launched. 

5. 1922: Chauri Chaura incident, withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement. 

6. 1928: Simon Commission was set up in India. 

7. December 1929: Lahore Congress adopted demands for Purna Swaraj. 

8. 1930: Civil Disobedience Movement was started by breaking salt law at Dandi. 

9. 1931: Gandhi-Irwin Pact. 

10. 1931: End of Civil Disobedience Movement, Poona Pact signed. 

11. 1932: Civil Disobedience Movement relaunched.

Important Terms and Concepts

1. Satyagraha: Satyagraha loosely construed as ''emphasis on truth", "allegiance to the truth" or "truth force". It is a particular variant of non-violent resistance or civil resistance. The term Satyagraha was concocted by Mahatma Gandhi. He aimed to implement Satyagraha in the context of Indian Independence Movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for the Indians' rights. 

2. Picket: A strand of protest or demonstration by which people block the entrance to a shop, factory or office. 

3. Begar: Labour that the villagers were compelled to contribute without any form of payment. 

4. Boycott: The denial to liaise with people, or participate in activities, or buy and use things. It indicates a variant of protest. 

5. Nationalism: Nationalism is a political, socio-economic system characterised by propagating the interests of particular nation. It aims to gain and maintain self-governance, or complete sovereignty over the groups, homeland. 

6. Swaraj: Swaraj means self-governance or "self-rule". It is tantamount to "home-rule" coined by Swami Dayanand Saraswati and subsequently developed by Mahatma Gandhi. However, the word 'Swaraj' actually means Gandhiji's concept for Indian Independence from foreign exploitation. 

7. Martial Law: Martial Law indicates the foisting of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, particularly in relation to a temporary emergency like intrusion or major disaster in an occupied region. 

8. Guerrilla Movement: Guerrilla movement is a variant of disorganised warfare in which a small cohort of combatants such as para-military personnel, armed civilians or rebels deployed military tactics such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare and mobility to lead a larger and less-mobilised conventional military. 

9. Forced recruitment : It is a system by which the colonial state compelled people to join the army. 

10. Civil Disobedience Movement : Civil disobedience is the active, professed denial of a citizen to follow certain rules and laws of the state, orders and commands of a government. Civil disobedience is tantamount to non-violent or passive resistance. Mahatma Gandhi ji initiated the civil disobedience against the aggressive British rule in the nation. 

11. Rowlatt Act : The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 was popularly regarded as the Rowlatt Act. It was interchangeably known as the Black Act. It was an act of legislation passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919.

 

Differing strands within the movement.

1. Rebellion in the countryside : - From the cities, the non co-operation movement spread to the countryside. After the war, the struggles of peasants and tribal were developing in different parts of India.

2. One movement here war against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high nets and a variety of other cases. Peasants had to its begar. The peasantsmovement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

3. Oudh Kisan Sabha was setup headed by. Jawaharlal Nehru, within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villagers.

4. Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj in yet another way.

5. The colonial govt had closed large forest areas preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood and fruits. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers. He asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force.


SHORT ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Why Non-Cooperation? What was the method used in the Movement?
Gandhi in his famous book Hind Swaraj, declared that the British continue to rule with the Cooperation of the Indians – If we withdraw our Co-operation then their rule would end. It began with surrender of titles, boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods - Swadeshi, Boycott & National education.

2. Why did non-cooperation movement slowdown in cities?
Khadi cloth was more expensive for the poor-No alternative Indian Institution to accommodate Indians. Students and teachers began going back to Govt. Schools and lawyer joined courts.

3. When did Simon commission come to India? Why was it boycotted?
Simon reached Indian in 1928. It was boycott because- It did not have any single Indian- It did not talk about Swaraj

4. Who were the leaders of Khilafat Movement? Why was it started?
Ali brothers - Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. The defeat of Ottoman Turkey in 1st world war-Harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman emperor-To defend this, a Khilafat Committee was formed –to undo the wrong done to Turkey-Joined with non-cooperation movement

5. What were the conditions of the Gandhi Irwin pact?
Mahatma Gandhi signed the pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March, 1931- Gandhi agreed to participate in the 2nd Round table conference in England-Government agreed to release all the political prisoners.

6. What were the decisions of the Lahore Congress session of 1929?
In December 1929 under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru the Lahore Congress formalized the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence.It was declared that 26th January 1930 would be celebrated as the Independence day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for independence-Decided to launch Civil Disobedience movement.

7. How did the First World War help in the growth of nationalist movement in India?
War created a new political and economic situation. It led to an increase in expenditure. The war led to a price rise and hardship for common people. War led to forced recruitment of people. Acute Shortage of food led to famine and misery. Indians began to realize that they were drawn in a war unnecessarily. This feeling united Indians against the British.


LONG ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS 

1. “This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles role of folklore, songs, icons &images”Analyse the statement.
In late 19th century, Indian Nationalist began recording folk tales sung by bards and toured village to gather. The tales they believed gave true picture of traditional culture that was damaged by outside forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover the National Identity. It restored a sense of pride in one’s past
During Swadeshi Movement, a tricolor flag was designed representing eight provinces through eight lotuses and a crescent moon symbolizing Hindu-Muslim unity. Later Gandhiji developed tricolor flag (Red, Green and White) with a spinning wheel at center representing self-help. Carrying the flag became a symbol of defiance.
This image Bharath Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chttopadhyay. In 1870 he wrote Vande Mataram a hymn to the mother land. Abanindranath Tagore in his painting portrayed Bharath Mata as calm, ascetic figure, composed, divine and spiritual 

2. Describe the Dandi March of Gandhiji.
Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the Nation. He sent letter to Viceroy Irwin in which the most stirring was demand to abolish salt tax. When Irwin refused, Gandhi started the salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers, marched 240 miles from Sabarmati ashram to Dandi. On his way he told the importance of Swaraj to people and asked to defy British. On 6th April he reached Dandi violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. It marked the beginning of civil disobedience movement.

3. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhijis ideas?
Alluri Sitaram Raju was a tribal leader in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh. He started a militant Guerilla Movement in the early 1920s. The tribal people were enraged by the British policy, but when the government began forcing them to contribute ‘beggar for road building, the hill people revolted. Raju inspired the hill people. He talked on the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi. Inspired by Gandhijis Non Cooperation Movement he persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he did not believe in Non Violence, he thought that India could be liberated only by the use of force.

Important Questions for NCERT Class 10 Social Science Nationalism In India

Question. Why was the Simon Commission boycotted in India?
Answer. It was boycotted because there was no Indian member in the Simon Commission.

Question. Why did the business classes in India participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer. They participated in this movement because they wanted protection against imprints of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.

Question. What did Mahatma Gandhi do to launch a more broad-based movement in India.
Answer. He brought Hindus and Muslims closer together.

Question. What was Gandhiji’s conviction regarding the starting of the Non-cooperation movement that he expressed in his book Hind Swaraj?
Answer. He declared that British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would come.

Question. When and why Gandhiji went on fast unto death? What was its outcome?
Answer. Many dalit leaders stressed on demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. Dr B.R. Ambedkar organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 and supported dalit’s demands. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s point and it resulted in the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Scheduled Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Question. How did Khilafat movement gain momentum? or How did Mahatma Gandhi view the Khilafat issue?
Answer. (i) In the First World War, Ottoman Turkey was defeated and a harsh peace treaty was imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(ii) To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March, 1919.
(iii) A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
(iv) At the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1920 he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.

Question. Explain the term ‘Satyagraha’. Describe three movements of Satyagraha successfully organsied by Mahatma Gandhi soon after his arrival in India.
                                  Or
What was Satyagraha? Explain some of the Satyagrahas launched by Gandhiji.
                                  Or
Answer. “A Satyagraha was the battle through non-violence”. Explain with examples. Ans. Satyagraha was a novel method of mass struggle introduced by Mahatma Gandhi. Satyagraha is a synthesis of ‘Satya’ meaning truth and ‘Agraha’ means to persuade. It encompassed non-violent modes of protest against the majestic policies of the
British.
It represented not physical force but pure soul force. Soul which is informed with knowledge and burns the flame of love. A Satyagrahi could win a battle through soul force by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

Mahatma Gandhi organised three Satyagraha movements:
(i) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. Finally, the colonial government passed an Act for the welfare of the poor peasants of Champaran in 1918.
(ii) In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of Kheda in Gujarat. Gandhiji asked the peasants not to pay taxes due to crop failure. This time also the government had to bow and the payment of taxes was deferred to the next year.
(iii) In 1918, Satyagraha movement was organised among the cotton mill-workers in Ahmedabad. As a result their pay was raised.

Question. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhiji’s ideas.
Answer. (i) Alluri Sitaram Raju was a great follower of Gandhiji. When the colonial government began forcing the hill people to contribute begar for road building, they revolted. Here, came Alluri Sitaram Raju to lead them against the British. He was an interesting figure who claimed that he had a variety of special powers.
(ii) He could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. captivated by him, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
(iii) Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi. He said that he was inspired by the Non-cooperation Movement and persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
(iv) The rebels under his leadership, attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj. But unfortunately Raju was captured and executed in 1924.

Question. Discuss the factors that deteriorated the relations between Hindus and Muslims.
Answer. (i) After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, a large section of Muslims felt separated from the Congress.
(ii) From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(iii) This worsened the relations between Hindus and Muslims.
(iv) Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
(v) Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
(vi) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (leader of the Muslim League) agreed to quit the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were guaranteed reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab).
(vii) But all hopes were dashed in 1928 when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed to compromise.
(viii) In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, (President of the Muslim League) re-stated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests.

Question. What were the three local issues in which Gandhiji experimented his technique of Satyagraha during the years 1917-18? How were these issues resolved?
Answer. After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi organised several Satyagraha Movements in various places:
(i) Champaran: In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the exploitative plantation system.
(ii) Kheda: In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha Movement in support of the Kheda peasants in Gujarat. These peasants were very much worried due to crop failure and a plague epidemic. Since they could not pay the revenue, they demanded relaxation in revenue collection.
(iii) Ahmedabad: In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha Movement among the workers of cotton mills.

Question. Which of the following was the reason for calling off 'The Non-Cooperation Movement' by Gandhiji?
(A) Pressure from the British Government
(B) Second Round Table Conference
(C) Gandhiji's arrest
(D) Chauri-Chaura incident
Answer : D

Question. Who among the following wrote the 'Vande Mataram'? 
(A) Rabindranath Tagore
(B) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(C) Abanindranath Tagore
(D) Dwarkanath Tagore
Answer : B

Question. In which of the following Indian National Congress Session, the idea of Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted? R
(A) Lahore Session
(B) Nagpur Session
(C) Calcutta Session
(D) Madras Session
Answer : C

Question. Study the picture and answer the question that follows: (Image 7)

Which of the following events was related to this image of Gandhi? RA
(A) Non-Cooperation Movement
(B) Kheda Satyagraha
(C) Dandi March
(D) None of these
Answer : C

Question. Identify the appropriate reason for the formation of the Swaraj party from the options given below: R
(A) Wanted Members of Congress to return to Council Politics.
(B) Wanted Members of Congress to ask for Purna Swaraj for IndiAnswer :
(C) Wanted Members of Congress to ask Dominion Status for India.
(D) Wanted Members of Congress to oppose Simon Commission.
Answer : A

Question. With the growth of Nationalism, who created the image of Bharat Mata? R
(A) Abanindranath Tagore
(B) Rabindranath Tagore
(C) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(D) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer : A

Question. In the 19th Century India, the idea of Nationalism was revived through which of the following? RU
(A) History and fictions
(B) Figure or images
(C) Folklore or songs
(D) Popular prints
Answer : C

Question. Study the picture and answer the question that follows: (Image 7)
Which of the following personalities is shown in the given image?

(A) Vallabhbhai Patel
(B) C. R. Das
(C) Motilal Nehru
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Answer : D

Question. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:  (Image 8)
Which of the following things is being held by Jawaharlal Nehru in this image?
(A) Bhagwad Gita
(B) Image of Bharat Mata
(C) Discovery of India
(D) Hind Swaraj
Answer : B

Question. Which of the following agreement gave seats to the Depressed Classes in Provincial and Central Legislative Council? R
(A) Poona Pact
(B) Lucknow Pact
(C) Gandhi – Irwin Pact
(D) None of these
Answer : A

Question. Certain events are given below. Choose the appropriate chronological order: RA
(i) Coming of Simon Commission to India
(ii) Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC
(iii) Government of India Act, 1919
(iv) Champaran Satyagraha
Options:
(A) (iii) - (ii) - (iv) - (i)
(B) (i) - (ii) - (iv) - (iii)
(C) (ii) - (iii) - (i) - (iv)
(D) (iv) - (iii) - (i) - (ii) [OD Set-I, 2020]
Answer : D

Question. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:
(i) Formation of the Muslim League.
(ii) The First Word War.
(iii) The first meeting of the Indian National Congress in Bombay.
(iv) Through the war prices increased in double. RA
Options:
(A) (ii) - (iv) - (iii) - (i)
(B) (i) - (iii) - (iv) - (ii)
(C) (iv) - (ii) - (i) - (iii)
(D) (iii) - (i) - (ii) - (iv)
Answer : D

Question. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:
(i) Rowlatt Act passed. RA
(ii) The Partition of Bengal officially came into existence.
(iii) Satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad.
(iv) Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District (Gujarat).
Options:
(A) (iv) - (ii) - (i) - (iii)
(B) (ii) - (iii) - (iv) - (i)
(C) (ii) - (iv) - (iii) - (i)
(D) (i) - (iii) - (ii) - (iv)
Answer : C

Question. Analyze the information given below, consider the following given options and identify the most appropriate one in reference to the given information:
Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was, in a way, an ultimatum. If the demands were not fulfilled by 11 March, the letter stated, the Congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6 April, 1930 he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(A) Non-Cooperation Movement RA
(B) Salt March
(C) Khilafat Movement
(D) Rowlatt Act
Answer : B

Question. Analyze the information given below, consider the following given options and identify the most appropriate one in reference to the given information: RU
As the national movement developed, nationalist
leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolor (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

(A) Designing of icons
(B) Designing of tricolour flag
(C) Designing of national symbols
(D) Designing of images
Answer : B

Question. Find the incorrect option from the following: RU
(A) Mahatma Gandhi found sugar a powerful symbol that could unite a nation.
(B) On 31st January, 1930 he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
(C) Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from Industrialists to Peasants.
(D) The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
Answer : A

Question. Find the incorrect option from the following: R
(A) Against this background the new Tory Government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.
(B) Set up in response to Nationalist Movement, the Commission was to look into the functioning of the Constitutional System in India and suggest changes.
(C) The problem was that the Commission did not have a single Indian Member.
(D) They were all AmericAnswer :
Answer : D

Question. Find the incorrect option from the following: R
(A) In 1928, Vallabhbhai Patel led the Peasant Movement in Bardoli, a taluka in Gujarat.
(B) It was against enhancement of land revenue, known as the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(C) This Movement was a success under the able leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel.
(D) The struggle was widely publicized and generated immense sympathy in many parts of India.
Answer : B

Question. Directions : In the following questions, A statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R).
Mark the correct choice as:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
(C) A is true but R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

Question. Assertion (A): It was declared that 26th January,1930 would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for Complete Independence. RA
Reason (R): Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.
Answer : B

Question. Assertion (A): Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. R
Reason (R): His object, as he declared later, was to 'produce a moral effect', to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
Answer : A

Question. Assertion (A): Foreign goods were boycotted,liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. RU
Reason (R): Students and Teachers began trickling back to Government Schools and Lawyers joined back work in Government Courts.
Answer : B

Question. Assertion (A): Mahatma Gandhi decided to take up the Khilafat issue. RU
Reason (R): After many leaders were arrested, violent clashes broke out at many places in India and women and children were beaten up.
Answer : B

Question. Assertion (A): Between 1921-1922, production of tea and coffee grew up. R
Reason (R): As the Non-Cooperation moved into economic sphere, Foreign goods and clothes were boycotted and burnt.
Answer : D

Question. Assertion (A): Folklores gave a picture of traditional culture, it helps in discovering a national identity and restoring a sense of pride in one's past.
Reason (R): Nationalism spreads when people discover some unity that binds them together UA
Answer : B

Question. Assertion (A): Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement by violating Salt Law. R
Reason (R): An image or figure helps people to identify with the nation.
Answer : C

Case-based MCQs

Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:

The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left Government- controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power-something that usually only Brahmans had access to. The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from ` 102 crore to ` 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian Textile Mills and handlooms went up. But this Movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. How then could they boycott mill cloth for too long? Similarly, the boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in Government Courts.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question. What was the purpose of Justice Party to contest Elections to the Council in Madras? Select the appropriate option: RU
(A) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the ways to gain some income that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(B) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as nit was one of the ways to gain some power that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(C) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the way to gain more popularity that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(D) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the ways to take revenge from BrahmAnswer :
Answer : B

Question. How was the effect of ‘Non-Cooperation on the economic front’ dramatic? 
(A) Merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(B) The merchants imported goods from other countries.
(C) The neighbouring countries were offering same goods at cheaper prices.
(D) Public was not interested in buying foreign goods.
Answer : A

Question. The import of Foreign cloth between 1921 and 1922 saw changes because: R
(A) its value dropped from ` 100 crore to ` 97 crore.
(B) its value dropped from ` 201 crore to ` 150 crore.
(C) its value dropped from ` 102 crore to ` 57 crore.
(D) its value dropped from ` 102 crore to ` 75 crore.
Answer : C

Question. Thousands of ____________ left government controlled schools and colleges and _______ gave up their legal practices. UA
(A) teachers, judges.
(B) headmasters, clerks.
(C) students, advocates.
(D) students, lawyers
Answer : D

Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:

The identity of the nation, as you know is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s, he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option. 

Question. Means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through: RA
(A) Reinterpretation of Astronomy
(B) Reinterpretation of Philosophy
(C) Reinterpretation of Mythology
(D) Reinterpretation of History
Answer : D

Question. Bharat Mata was first created by: R
(A) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(B) Natesa Sastri
(C) Rabindranath Tagore
(D) Abanindranath Tagore
Answer : A

Question. As Bharat Mata is to India, ___________ is to Italy and ____________ is to Germany. RA
(A) Statue of Liberty, Mother Mary
(B) Marianne, Germania
(C) Germania, Marianne
(D) Statue of Liberty, Germania
Answer : B

Question. What quality is emphasized by Bharat mata? R
(A) Anxious
(B) Sacred
(C) Mortal
(D) All of the above
Answer : B

Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

In the countryside, rich peasant communities – like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand. And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So, when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate. The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords. As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question. Patidars and Jats are rich Peasants of which State?
(A) Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh R
(B) Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh
(C) Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan
(D) Punjab and Haryana
Answer : A

Question. Who led the Peasant's Movement in Awadh?
(A) Baba Ramnath R
(B) Baba Ramchandra
(C) Baba Ramdev
(D) Baba Ram Mohan
Answer : B

Question. For plantation workers in Assam, which Act did not permit them to leave the tea gardens without permission? R
(A) Inland Emigration Act of 1947
(B) Inland Emigration Act of 1839
(C) Inland Emigration Act of 1859
(D) Inland Emigration Act of 1887
Answer : C

Question. Congress was unwilling to support _________campaigns in most places. RA
(A) high rent
(B) no rent
(C) low rent
(D) equal rent
Answer : B

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