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Chapter-10 Cell structure
All living organism are made up of cell. cell is a structural and functinal unit of organism. some organisms are unicellular while others are multicellular. Each cell is having potentiality to produce a new individual.This is called totipotency of cell.
On the basis of presence or absence of membrane bound nucleus, organisms are classified into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes include plants and animals hence,eukaryotic cells are further classified into plant cells and animal cells.
Major differences between plant cells and animal cells are presence of cell wall,plastids and vacuole in plant cells. A typical eukaryotic cell consists of a cell membrane,cytoplasm and nucleus. Cell membrane also called plasma-membrane is the outermost layer of animal cell and located inner to cell wall in plant cell.
Eukaryotic cell posseses membrane bound oraganelles like endoplasmic reticulum,golgi apparatus, lysosomes,and vacuoles.
Endoplasmic reticulum is made up of cisternae.Endoplasmic reticulum having ribosomes on its outer- surface is called rough endo- plasnic reticulum.It is associated with the synthesis of protein.
Endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes is known as smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It take part in the synthesis of lipid. Goigi apparatus is made up of flattened sac like structure.
Lysosomes are surrounded by a single layer wall.They contain enzymes which digest all macromolecules. In plant cell large vacuole are present which possess a membrane called tonoplast. As the mitochondria are associated with the generation of ATP they are called power house of cell.
The chloroplast is a double layered structure and possess grana and stroma.70s type ribosomes are present in prokaryotic cells while 80s type of ribosomes are present in eukaryotic cells. The shape of cytoplasm and the shape of cell is maintained by cytoskeleton which is made up of microfilament, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
Eukaryotic cell possesses nucleas, nucler membrane,nucleous and chromatin. Depending on the position of centromere chromosomes are four types, like Metacentric,sub-metacentric,Acrocentric and Telocentric.
1. It is responsible for begininig of the life of organisms.
(A) Tissue (B) Zygote (C) Cell (D) Embryonic layer
2. Who proposed the cell theory.
(A) Singer and Nicholsen (B) Schwann and schleiden (C) Hook and Brown (D) Robertson
3. Who proposed that new cells arise through cell division of pre-existing cells.
(A) Robert Hook (B) Rudolf Virchow (C) Robert Brown (D) Singer
4. It is the Smallest Cell.
(A) Bacteria (B) Mycoplasm (C) Yeast (D) Blue green algae
5. Prokaryotic cells have which architectural regions?
(A) Cell (B) Appendages (C) Nucleus (D) a-b-c,all
6. The association of more than one ribosome with a single molecule of m-RNA complex is called as...
(A) Polypeptide (B) Polysome (C) Polymer (D) Poly Saccharide
7. Which structure possess flagellin protein?
(A) Muscles fiber (B) Flagellum (C) Pilli (D) a,b,c-all
8. The cell wall of algae is made up of which substance?
(A) Protein (B) Mannans (C) Lipid (D) a,b,c-all
9. The cells involved in large amount of lipid synthesis,do not possess this orgenelle on Endoplasmicreticulum.
(A) Mitochondrion (B) Ribosomes (C) Golgi apparatus (D) lysosome
10. In mitochodria, it contains F-particles.
(A) Matrix (B) Cristae (C) Outer layer (D) a-b-c,all
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