CBSE Class 10 English Speech Direct and Indirect Assignment

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Speech Direct And Indirect Class 10 English Assignment Pdf

Class 10 English students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Speech Direct And Indirect in standard 10. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 10 English will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 10 English Assignment for Speech Direct And Indirect

CBSE Class 10 English Speech Direct and Indirect Assignment. Students are advised to refer to the attached assignments and practice them regularly. This will help them to identify their weak areas and will help them to score better in examination. Parents should download and give the assignments to their children for practice.

Direct and Indirect Speech

1. When the actual words spoken are quoted, it is called Direct Speech.
2. When we report without quoting the exact words spoken, it is called Indirect Speech.
For example: Ram said, “I am very busy now.” (Direct)
Ram said that he was very busy then. (Indirect)

Note: (i) In the direct speech, inverted commas are used to show the exact words of the speaker. In the indirect speech, it is not so.
(ii) In the indirect speech, the conjunction ‘that’ is used before the indirect statement.
(iii) The pronoun ‘I’ changes to ‘he’ or ‘she’ when converting from direct to indirect speech.
(iv) The verb ‘am’ changes to ‘was’ when converting from direct to indirect speech.
(v) The adverb ‘now’ changes to ‘then’ when converting from direct to indirect.

Remember
When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the direct speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses.
am/is → was                  will → would
are → were                   can → could
do/does → did
want/like/know/go, and so on → wanted/liked/knew/went, and so on
have/has → had

The simple past (did/saw/knew, and so on) can usually stay the same in indirect/reported speech
or can be changed to the past perfect (had done/had seen/had known, and so on)
For example: Harjot said, “I woke up feeling ill, so I didn’t go to school.” (Direct)
Harjot said that she woke up feeling ill, so she didn’t go to school. (Indirect/Reported)
Or
Harjot said she had woken up feeling ill, so she hadn’t gone to school. (Indirect/Reported)

(a) Simple present becomes simple past
For example
Direct : He said, “I am unwell.”
Indirect : He said that he was unwell.

(b) Present continuous becomes past continuous
For example
Direct : He said, “My master is writing letters.”
Indirect : He said that his master was writing letters.

(c) Present perfect becomes past perfect
For example
Direct : He said, “I have passed the examination.”
Indirect : He said that he had passed the examination.

(d) Simple past becomes past perfect
For example
Direct : He said, “The horse died in the night.”
Indirect : He said that the horse had died in the night.
If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tenses in direct speech do not change. We may,thus, rewrite the given examples putting the reporting verb in the present tense.
(a) He says he is unwell.
(b) He has just said his master is writing letters.
(c) He says he has passed the examination.
(d) He says the horse died in the night.

Situations
Words expressing nearness in time or place are changed into words expressing distance.
Word                         Changed as
now                             then
here                             there
this                              that
today                           that day
tomorrow                     the next day
yesterday                     the day before/the previous day
last night                      the night before/the previous night

Direct : He said, “I am glad to be here this evening.”
Indirect : He said that he was glad to be there that evening.

Statements
Reporting statements are introduced with reporting verbs, such as ‘say’ or ‘tell’/‘said’ or ‘told’.

Look at the following sentence.
The teacher said to me, “I have never seen a boy as lazy as you are.” (Direct)
When we report this statement, we connect the two clauses using ‘that’.

Now, read the following sentence.
- The teacher told me that he had never seen a boy as lazy as I was. (Indirect)
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
- pronouns
- tense
- place and time expression

Questions
In reporting questions, the indirect speech is introduced by verbs, such as ‘asked’ or ‘inquired’.

For example
Direct : He said to me, “What are you doing?”
Indirect : He asked me what I was doing.
When the question is not introduced by an interrogative word, the reporting verb is followed by ‘if ’ or ‘whether’.

For example
Direct : He said, “Will you listen to such a man?”
Indirect : He asked them if/whether they would listen to such a man.

Commands and Requests
The imperative mood is changed into the infinitive and verbs expressing command or request introduce the indirect speech.

For example
1. Direct : Ram said to Arjun, “Go away.”
Indirect : Ram ordered Arjun to go away.
2. Direct : He said to him, “Please wait here till I return.”
Indirect : He requested him to wait there till he returned.

Exclamations and Wishes
Words expressing exclamation or wish, introduce the indirect speech.

For example
Direct : Ela said, “How clever I am!”
Indirect : Ela exclaimed that she was very clever. 


What is a Direct Speech? In a Direct Speech, the speaker’s own words are quoted without making any change. For example,

Ravi said, “Mohit has gone to Delhi.” 

What is an Indirect Speech? in an Indirect Speech, the essence of the Speaker’s words is given. For Example,

Ravi said that Mohit had gone to Delhi. 

Some Important Points

1. In a Direct Speech-

(a) The Speaker’s actual words are placed within inverted commas (“).

(b) His actual words start with a capital letter.

(c) There is a comma after the reporting verb.

(d) At the end of his actual words, a full stop or a question mark or a sign of exclamation is put according to the need of the sentence.

(e) The tense of the speaker’s words remains the same. 

2. In an Indirect Speech-

(a) Inverted commas are not used.

(b) Only the first letter of the sentence starts with a capital letter.

(c) There is no comma after the reporting verb.

(d) Conjunctions like that, to, if/whether are used to link the reporting verb and the reported speech.

(e) At the end of the sentence, only a full stop is put. Question marks are not allowed.

(f) The tense of the speaker’s words undergoes a change.

Note: If the speaker’s words express a habitual action, a universal truth, a scientific statement, a proverb or a permanent truth, the tense of the speaker’s words remain the same.

 

Changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech

1. Tense And Verb Forms

(a) Simple Present-Simple Past

Direct: Rahul said to me, “I am your friend.”

Indirect: Rahul told me that he was my friend.

(b) Present Continuous-Past Continuous

Direct: Rahul said, “I am playing.”

Indirect: Rahul said that he was playing.

(c) Present Perfect- Past Perfect

Direct: Rahul said, “I Have done my work.”

Indirect: Rahul said that he had done his work.

 

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