CBSE Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Worksheet

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REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
 
According to WHO, reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of reproduction i.e. physical, emotional, behavioral and social.
 
Reproductive Health: Problem and Strategies
 
• India was amongst the first countries in the world to initiate to the programme “family planning” initiated in 1951.
 
• Reproductive health in a society forms a crucial part of general health.
 
• Improved programs covering wider reproduction-related areas are currently in operation under the popular name ‘Reproductive and child health care (RCH) program.’
 
• Health and education of young people and marriage and child bearing during more mature stages of life are important attributes to the reproductive health of a society.
 
Measures taken by Goverenment :
 
• Through the help of audio-visuals & print media.
• Even family members, close relations are involved in the awareness.
• Sex education was introduced in schools to provide awareness
• Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence & related changes , safe & hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS etc.
 
Amniocentesis - It is a technique used to find out chromosomal abnormalities in developing embryo by using amniotic fluid.
 
It is also misused to check foetal sex determination based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo.
 
Population Explosion and Birth Control
 
Improved quality of life of people, increased health facilities and better living condition had an explosive impact on explosion of population.
Rapid decline in death rate, MMR (maternal mortality rate) and IMR (infant
mortality rate) along with increase in population of reproductive age is the main
reason for population explosion.
 
Steps to overcome population explosion-
 
1. Using various contraceptive methods.
2. Educating people about the demerits of large family.
3. Increasing the marriageable age of female and male
4. Providing incentive to parents having 1or 2 children.
 
Contraceptive methods are used to prevent the unwanted pregnancy and modifying the menstrual cycle.
 
An ideal contraceptive should be-
1. User friendly
2. Easily available
3. Effective
4. Reversible
5. No side effects
6. No way interferes with sexual desire and sexual act.
 
Contraceptive methods could be divided into following categories
 
a) Natural or traditional methods
b) Barrier methods
c) IUDs
d) Oral contraceptive methods
e) Injectable
f) Implants
g) Surgical methods.
 
Natural methods works on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperm meeting. It includesa)

Periodic abstinence- the couples avoid coitus from day 10 to 17 of menstrual cycle as chances of fertilisation are very high during this period, it is called the fertile period.
b) Withdrawal or coitus interruptus – male partner withdraws penis from vagina just before ejaculation to avoid insemination .
c) Lactational Amenorrhea – absence of menstruation after parturition and due to intense milk feeding and no ovulation in this period , chances of fertilisation is nil.
 
• In Barrier methods, ovum and sperms are prevented from physical meeting with help of barrier. This includesa)
 
Condoms- used by male, barrier made of rubber or latex sheet used to cover penis or vagina and cervix of female. It also prevents from STDs.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Worksheet 1

b) Diaphragms, cervical cap and vaults are barrier made of rubber that is inserted into the female reproductive tract during coitus. .Spermicidal creams, jellies and foams are usually used alongwith these barriers to increase their contraceptive efficiency.
 
Advantages of barrier methods:
 
1. They are disposable.
2. They can be self –inserted.
3. They are reusable.
4. Prevents conception by blocking entry of sperm through cervix.


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