CBSE Class 10 Social Science Important Questions

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Que.No.1: Who were referred as ‘Junkers’ in Prussia? 

OR

Mention one impact of great depression of 1930s on Vietnam?

Ans 1. The  Junkers  were members of the landed nobility in Prussia were members of the landed nobility in Prussia.

OR

Ans The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings

 

Que.No.2: In which Indian National Congress Session, the idea of Khalifat /Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted?

OR

By what means does hand spun khadi provide large scale employment to weavers?

OR

What were ‘Corn Laws’?

Ans2. The Calcutta Session.

OR

He was a Bengali poet, writer and journalist. He wrote  ‘ Vande Matram’.

OR

The laws allowing the government to restrict the import of corn were commonly known as the Corn laws.

 

Que.No.3:  What does horizontal distribution of power mean? 

Ans 3. Horizontal distribution of power means that the power is shared among legislature, executive and judiciary.

 

Que.No.4: Name the countries having ‘Coming Together’ federation and ‘Holding Together’ federation.

Ans 4. Coming Together’ federation – The USA

         ‘Holding Together’ federation- India

 

Que.No.5: State any two goals of development other than income.

Ans 5. Goals of development other than income-

(i) Equal treatment

(ii) Freedom

 

Que.No.6: What does ‘National Development’ refers to?

Ans.6.  National development is a comprehensive term which includes increase in real per capita income, improvement in living standard of people, reduction in poverty etc.

 

Que.No.7: Give any two examples of informal sector of credit.?

Ans 7. Informal Sectors of Credit-

(i) Moneylenders

(ii) Traders

 

Que.No.8: Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s.

OR

Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth century.

OR

Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.

Ans. 8. Impact of Rinderpest-

(i) Rinderpest killed 90% of cattle in Africa.

(ii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihood.

(iii) Planters, mine owners and colonial government successfully  monopolized what scarce cattle resources remained.

(iv) Forced Africans into labour market.

(v) Control over the cattle resources enabled European colonizers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Any three points to be described.

OR

Major problems faced by the Indian cotton weavers-

(i) Their export market collapsed.

(ii) The local market shrunk.

(iii) Increase in price of raw cotton.

(iv) Shortage of cotton.

(v) Difficulty of weavers to compete with the imported machine

made cheaper cotton products.

(vi) Factories in India also began cheaper machine made goods to which our weavers could not compete.

OR

Steps taken to clean London-

(i) Attempts were made up to decongest localities

(ii) Green the open space

(iii) Reduce pollution

(iv) Landscape the city

(v) Large blocks of apartments were built

(vi) Any other relevant point

 

Que.No.9: “The ‘Print Revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge.” Analyse the statement.

OR

Distinguish between the themes of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’ novels written

Ans.9. Transformation due to Print Revolution-

(i) It influenced people’s perception and opened up new ways of looking at things.

(ii) A new reading public emerged

(iii) Increase in the reading public

(iv) Intermingling of hearing and reading public

(v) Created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas.

(vi) Introduced a new world of debate and discussion.

(vii)Stimulated many distinctive individual interpretation of faith.

(viii) Any other relevant point.

OR

Points of distinction between ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’-

Pride and Prejudice

(i) The novel of Jane Austen gives us a glimpse of women in genteel rural society.

(ii) They make us think about a society which encouraged women to look for good marriages and find wealthy or propertied husbands.

(iii) The main characters were preoccupied with marriage and money as typified in Austen society.

Jane Eyre

i) The main character broke established norms of society before adjusting to them.

ii) Character is shown as independent and assertive.

iii) Encouraged women readers to sympathize with rebellious actions.

iv) Any other relevant point.

Any three points of distinction to be mentioned by Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte respectively.

 

Que.No.10: Why is the conservation and management of water resource important? Give any three reasons.

Ans. 10. Conservation of water resources is essential in India due to following reasons:
(i) To safeguard ourselves from health hazards as the quality of water is badly affected by discharge of urban wastes, industrial effluents, pesticides and fertilisers.
(ii) To ensure food security to the people.
(iii) Continuation of human activities and prevention of degradation of environment.

 

Que.No.11: Which crop is known as ‘Golden Fiber’? Explain any two Geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of the crop. Mention its uses also.

Ans 11. Jute is called golden fibre for its colour and high cash value in India.
Geographical conditions
(i) Well-drained fertile soils in the flood plain where soil is renewed every year.
(ii) High temperature during growth period, so hot and humid climate is required.
Among major regions of jute production, West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Meghalaya are important.
Uses
(i) It is used in making carry bags, carpets, ropes, yarn and other artefacts. 
(ii) Its stick is also used for fuel in rural belt.
(iii) With fine works, it can be used for clothes.
(iv) It is cropped for commercial purpose which earns a livelihood for farmer.
(v) Now, it is proposed to replace polythene space in India to promote pollution free environment

 

Que.No.12:  “Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development.” Analyse the statement.

Ans.12. Efficient network of transport is pre-requisite for local and national development-

(i) The movement of the goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transportation.

(ii) Development of country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as movement to their destinations.

(iii) Transport helps in both production and distribution of goods.            

 

Que.No.13: What special provisions are provided to some of the state of India?

Ans.13. Most of the federations that are formed by ‘holding together’ do not give equal power to its constituent units. All states in Indian union do not have identical powers. Some states enjoy a special status, like Jammu & Kashmir which has its own constitution. Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to this state without the approval of the State Assembly. Indians who are not the permanent residents of this state cannot buy land or house here.

 

Que.No.14: What changes can be seen in the Caste System in modern India?

Ans.14. Partly due to social reformers and political leaders’ efforts and partly due to other socio-economic changes, castes and caste system in modem India have undergone great changes.
With economic development, large-scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down. Now most of the times, in urban areas, it does not matter much who is walking along next to us on a street or eating at the next table in a restaurant. The Constitutiom of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination. 

 

Que.No.15: What are the main components of a political party? 

Ans 15. Three Components of a Political Party:
(i) The Leaders Every political party has some prominent leaders who formulate policies and programmes of the party and choose candidates for contesting elections.
(ii) The Active Members They are involved in different committees of the party and participate directly in their activity.
(iii) The Followers They believe in the party’s ideology and support the party by casting their votes in favour of the party at the time of election.

 

Que.No.16: Distinguish the service conditions of organized sector with that of unorganized sector..

Ans16. Service conditions of Organized and Unorganized Sectors-

(i) Organized sector is registered by the government whereas, the unorganized sector is largely outside the control of the government.

(ii) In organized sector the workers enjoy security of employment whereas, in unorganized sector jobs are insecure, low paid and irregular.

(iii)In organized sector the numbers of working hours are fixed whereas in unorganized sector the numbers of working hours are not fixed.

(iv) In organized sector workers get several benefits such as paid leaves, payment during holidays, provident fund etc, whereas in unorganized sector such facilities are not available.

 

Que.No.17:. Why do we need to expand formal sources of credit in India? Give three reasons.

Ans 17. The reasons for expanding credit in India are
(i) High cost of borrowing leads to a major share of earnings going into payment of interest on the loan.
(ii) Sometimes the higher interest rate leads to the requirement to pay more than the earnings, thus falling into a debt-trap.
(iii) Borrowers falling into debt-traps discourage more people from borrowing, thus reducing development of the country.
(iv)Banks and cooperative societies lending to more borrowers will lead to higher incomes and many people could then borrow cheaply for a variety of needs like growing crops, set-up business or small-scale industries.

 

Que.No.18: Why do we understand by Globalisation? Explain in your own words. 

Ans.18 . Integration of the world market in various ways is called globalization. Take example of Microsoft. Microsoft is having its headquarters in USA. This company is getting part of its software developed in India and several other countries. And Microsoft’s software is being used across the world. Another example can be Ford motors based in USA. Ford is having manufacturing plants in Chennai and cars manufactured in Chennai go for sale in other countries. Moreover, company may be getting gear boxes produced in some other country, seat belts from a different country, lights, rear view mirrors in some other nation by some other company. Almost all the components get supplied by various vendors to the Ford motor, which assembles them to make the car.

 

Que.No.19: Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe.

OR

Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

Ans.19. Explosive condition of Balkans in 1871 -

The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern days Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Macedonia whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs. A large part of Balkans was under the control of Ottoman Empire.

The spread of ideas of Romantic Nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region explosive. All throughout the 19th century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself. The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history for their claim.Balkan also became the scene of rivalry among big powers.

OR

Role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam Religion played an important role in strengthening colonial control; it also provided ways of resistance in Vietnam.

♦ Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices.

 Christianity introduced by French missionaries.

 Many religious movements were hostile to the Western

 

Que.No.20: How did Non-Cooperation movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities ? Explain its impact on the economic front.

OR

Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation ? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement ?

Ans. 20. Participation of middle class people and its impact-

i. The movement started with middle class participation in the cities.

ii. Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.

iii. Head Masters and teachers resigned.

iv. Lawyers gave up their legal practice.

v. The Council election was boycotted in most of the provinces.

vi. Any other relevant point.

Economic Impact

i. Liquor shops picketed.

ii. Foreign goods were boycotted.

iii. Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

iv. Import of goods declined.

v. Any other relevant point.

OR

Congress reluctant in participation of women-

i. Congress was keen only on the symbolic presence of women within the organization.

ii. Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.

iii. Any other relevant point. 

Participation of women in Civil Disobedience Movement-

i. During Gandhiji’s Salt March, thousands of women came out of their homes to participate in protest marches.

ii. Manufactured salt and picketed liquor shops.

iii. Boycotted foreign goods.

iv. Many went to jail.

v. Women were from high caste families and from rich peasant households participated.

 

Que.No.21: Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India.

Ans 21. Comparison between ‘Intensive Subsistence farming’ and ‘Commercial farming’-

i. In Intensive subsistence farming pressure of population on land is high whereas in commercial farming population pressure is low.

ii. In intensive subsistence farming labour intensive farming is used whereas in commercial farming mechanized form of farming is used.

iii. In intensive subsistence farming there is low capital investment whereas in commercial farming high capital investment is seen.

iv. In intensive subsistence farming farmers produce for their own consumption whereas in commercial farming production is mainly for the market.

v. In intensive subsistence farming processing industries are not

 

Que.No.22: “Roadway still have an edge over railway in India” Support the statement with arguments.

Ans 22. The length of road per 100 sq km of area is known as density of roads.
Advantages of roadways over railways are
(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower than railway lines.
(ii) Roads can be constructed easily in hilly terrains and undulating topography.
(iii) Roadways act as a feeder to other modes of transport, as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
(iv) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
Thus, it can be concluded that roadways still have an edge over railways in India. 

 

Que.No.23: What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give examples of each of these.

Ans.23. Vertical Distribution of Power: The power is shared among governments at different levels– a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Example: In India, power is shared among Central government, State government and local governments.

→ Distribution of Power among different Social Groups: Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups.Example: ‘Community Government’ in Belgium.

→ Distribution of Power among Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements: Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements control or influence those who are in power. Different political parties contest elections for power which ensures that power does not remain in one hand and shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Pressure groups and movements influence the decision making process.

 

Que.No.24:. Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.

Ans. 24. PRIMITIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE — (A) Practiced by primitive societies, forest-dwelling rural families and communities (B) Requires family/community labour (C) Uses rudimentary forms of farming methods {specifically Slash and burn agriculture} (D) Uses rudimentary forms of agricultural implements {like hoe, plough, etc} (E) Largely depends on monsoon patterns, soil fertility, and other ecological factors.

INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE- (A) Practised by rural families and agriculturists. (B) Requires machinery to perform agricultural labour. (C) Uses modern forms of farming methods {like multi cropping and crop rotation} (D) Utilises modern agricultural implements {like plougher, tractor, seed drill, etc} (E) Largely depends on artificial irrigation and usage of pesticides and fertilizers.

 

Que.No.25: How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries ? Explain with examples.

Ans 25. Foreign Trade is Integrating markets of different countries-

(i) Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.

(ii) Producers can sell their products in the markets located in other countries.

(iii) It helps for expanding the choice of goods beyond domestic market.

(iv) It is a main channel connecting countries.

(v) Highly helpful for extensive trade.

(vi) The trading interest attracts various trading companies.

(vii) Any other relevant point.

 

Que.No.26: (A) (i) On the Outline Map of India, Mark  Kheda.

(ii) On the Outline Map of India, Mark Champaran.

(B) On the Map of India, Identify the followings:

(i) A major sea port.

(ii) A cotton textile Industry.

(iii) A Coal Mine.

DO BY YOURSELF.


Board Exam Questions for Class 10 Social Science


Q.1 Why had the Indian Government put a barrier to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? State any one reason.

Ans 1. The Indian Government put a barrier to trade and foreign investment after independence to protect the producers within the country from foreign competition.

Q.2 Why did Mahatma Gandhi Ji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.

Ans 2. Mahatma Gandhi Ji decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act: to trade, Rowlatt Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.

▪ It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities.

▪ Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

▪ It was the unjust law.

Q.3 "The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to Democrats all over the world." support the statement.

Ans 3. The struggles of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to Democrats all over the world: - The autocratic decision of King Gyanendra in February 2015 resulted in a protest by the political parties and people of Nepal. Political Parties having diverse ideology joined together and defied the curfew. The leaders rejected the half-hearted concessions by the king, ultimately the king was compelled to concede all the three demands made by the protesters. Hence, this struggle of Nepali’s known as the Second Movement for Democracy became a source of inspiration to Democrats all over the world.

Q.4 Describe the conditions in which markets do not work in a fair manner.

Ans 4. Conditions in which markets do not work in a fair manner:

▪ When producers are few and powerful.

▪ When consumers purchase in small amounts.

▪ When consumers are scattered.

▪ When large companies have a monopoly in production of goods as they have huge wealth and can manipulate the market in various ways.

▪ Passing on false information through media and other sources to attract consumers.

Q.5 In recent years how our markets have been transformed? Explain with examples.

Ans 5. Transformation of our markets:

▪ There is a wide choice of goods and services before us in the market. The latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones, and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world are within our reach.

▪ Every season new model of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads and the Indians are buying vehicles produced by the top companies of the world.

▪ A similar explosion of brands can be seen for many other goods from shirts to televisions to processed fruit juices.

Q.6 why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them.

Ans 6. Reasons for conservation:

▪ The strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon minerals.

▪ The process of mineral formation is slow.

▪ They are non-renewable. Any two points to be explained. Methods to conserve: -

▪ Minerals should be used in a planned and sustainable manner.

▪ Improved technology needs to be constantly evolved to allow the use of low-grade ore at low cost.

▪ Recycling of metals using scrap metals.

▪ Wastage in the mining and processing should be minimized.

Q.7 Describe any five major functions of political parties.

Ans 7. Functions of political parties:

▪ Parties contest elections.

▪ They put forward policies and programmes.

▪ Parties play a decisive role in making laws.

▪ Parties form and run the government.

▪ Defeated parties in the election play its role of opposition to the parties in power.

▪ Parties shape public opinion.

▪ Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

Q.8 How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples.

Ans 8. Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in various ways:

▪ Pressure groups and movements try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and activities.

▪ They often organize protest activities.

▪ Business groups often employ professional lobbyists.

▪ The pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders and political parties.

▪ Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.

▪ In most cases, the relationship between parties and pressure groups is not so direct.

Q.9 The place where held the Indian National congress session was in 1920.

Ans 9. Kolkata/Calcutta.

Q.10 Why is the supervision of the functioning of formal sources of loans necessary?

Ans 10. Supervision of formal sources of loans is necessary for the following reasons:

▪ So that the targeted groups for whom specific loans have been designed can avail of such loans.

▪ In order to check the creditworthiness of prospective clients to minimize defaults.

▪ So that the appropriate rates of interest are charged.

▪ In order that the targeted economic activity gets a boost.

▪ So that the Banks and other lending institutions have adequate resources to meet their lending objectives.

Q.11 ” The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against the U.S.” Support the statement with arguments.

Ans 11. Ho Chi Minh’s Trail was a network of roads and footpaths. Most of the trail was in Laos and Cambodia. It was used by the Vietnamese in their war against the U.S forces.

▪ It was used to transport goods and people from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.

▪ It was used for the quick movement of forces from one war front to the other.

▪ It was used to supply food, arms and ammunition to the soldiers.

▪ It had support bases and hospitals along the way.

Vietnamese made use of their limited resources in an effective way in the struggle against imperialist forces. Ho Chi Minh’s Trail is an example for that.

Q.12 Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India.

Ans 12. Three steps to minimise the environmental degradation caused by Industrial development in India are:

▪ Minimising use of water for procuring by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.

▪ Harvesting of rain water can be dense to meet water requirement.

▪ Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Q.13 Which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Give your opinion.

Ans 13.

▪ Lack of internal democracy

▪ All over the world, there is a tendency of political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top.

▪ Parties do not keep membership register.

▪ They do not conduct internal elections regularly.

▪ Ordinary members of the party do not have sufficient information as to what happens inside the party.

▪ No Transparency

▪ Since most political parties do not practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning, these are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.

▪ Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to famous people close to them or even their family member.

▪ In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family.

▪ Money and Muscle Power

▪ Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use short cuts to win elections.

▪ They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise a lot of money.

▪ Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party.

Q.14 Why had the Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? Analyze the reasons.

Ans 14. Removal of barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment:

▪ Barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment were partially removed.

▪ Goods could be improved and exported easily.

▪ Foreign companies could set up factories and offices here.

▪ Opportunities for Indian producers to compete with producers around the globe.

Q.15 Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them.

Ans 15. Importance of conservation of Minerals:

▪ Mineral resources are being rapidly consumed which takes millions of years to be created and concentrated.

▪ Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.

▪ Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decreasing quality.

The three measures to conserve minerals are:

▪ It should be used in a planned a sustainable manner.

▪ Improved technology needs to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs.

▪ Some of the metals are recyclables.

▪ Scrap of metal can be used and sore other substitute can be found.

Q.16 Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia.

Ans 16. The democratic governments are better than other forms of governments:

▪ Democratic governments have formal constitution, while not in another form of governments.

▪ They hold regular elections, while not in other forms of governments.

▪ They have political parties, while not in other forms of governments.

▪ They guarantee the rights of citizens, while not in the other form of governments.

▪ Such governments allow room to correct mistakes, while not in the other form of government.

▪ Such government accommodates social diversities, while not in other forms of government.

Q.17 “Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy “. Analyze the statement with examples.

Ans 17. Political parties are necessary condition for a democracy.

▪ Without political parties democracies cannot exist.

▪ If we do not have political parties - in such a situation every candidate in elections will be independent.

▪ No one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.

▪ The government may be formed but its utility will remain uncertain.

▪ Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in their locality.

▪ But no one will be responsible for how the country will run.

▪ The role of opposition party in a democracy necessiates the existence of political parties,

▪ As societies become large and complex they also needed some agencies to gather different

▪ views on various issues and to present these to the government, that is why political parties are needed.

▪ The problem of bad politics can be solved by more and better politics.

Q.18 Describe the impact of Globalization on Indian economy with examples.

Ans 18. The Globalisation has impacted Indian economy in the following ways:

▪ Increase in foreign investment, Over the past twenty years, the foreign investment has increased.

▪ Emergence of Indian companies as multinational Several of the top Indian companies like Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy have been able to get benefit from the increased competition created as a result of Globalisation.

▪ Creation of new opportunities Globalisation has created new opportunities for Indian companies, particularly providing services like IT.

▪ Creation of new jobs For those which are Globalisation has created new jobs and has helped in reducing unemployment rate to an extent.

▪ A host of services such as data entry, accounting, administrative tasks, engineering are now being done cheaply in India.

Q.19 Describe the process of Unification of Italy.

Ans 19. Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s:

▪ The enormous increase in population was seen all over Europe.

▪ In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.

▪ Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.

▪ Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.

▪ In Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.

▪ The rise of food prices as a result of a bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.

Q.20 Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

Ans 20. Role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam Religion played an important role in strengthening colonial control; it also provided ways of resistance in Vietnam.

▪ Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism, and local practices.

▪ Christianity introduced by French missionaries.

▪ Many religious movements were hostile to the Western presence.

▪ The revolt was led by officials at the Imperial Court angered by the spread of Catholic Church and French power.

▪ French crushed the movement, but uprising served to inspire others.

▪ Scholars Revolt

▪ Hao Hoa Movement (1939)

Q.21 How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples.

Ans 21. Foreign Trade is Integrating markets of different countries-

▪ Foreign trade creates an opportunity for producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.

▪ Producers can sell their products in the markets located in other countries.

▪ It helps for expanding the choice of goods beyond domestic market.

▪ It is a main channel connecting countries.

▪ Highly helpful for extensive trade.

▪ The trading interest attracts various trading companies.

Q.22 How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life? Explain with examples.

Ans 22. Impact of Globalization-

▪ Globalization and greater competition among producers have been of advantage to consumers.

▪ The greater choice before consumers.

▪ Availability of standard quality products at lower price.

▪ Improvement in living standard.

▪ Foreign investments have increased in many areas like cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks etc.

▪ The new job has been created.

▪ Several of the units have shut down rendering many workers jobless.

▪ Globalization has also created insecurity of job.

Q.23 Name the state where Narora Nuclear Power Plant is located.

Ans 23. Uttar Pradesh(U.P)

Q.24 Why is the iron and steel industry called the basic industry? Explain any three reasons.

Ans 24. Iron and steel industry are called the basic industry due to the following reasons: -

▪ Iron and steel industry are the key industry as all heavy, light, small scale, as well as large scale industries, are dependent on it for raw materials.

▪ Iron and steel are used to manufacture variety of goods like surgical instruments, defense appliances, electric devices, wires, utensils, electronic goods etc.

▪ It is backbone of industrial development of our country.

Q.25 Explain the improvements made by the Indian railways in its functioning.

Ans 25. Improvements made by Indian Railways in its functioning are listed below:

▪ Earlier sleepers were made of wood but now cemented sleepers have taken their place which lasts longer.

▪ Steam engines have been replaced by electrical and diesel engines.

▪ Special compartments and bloggers have been added for disabled people and women etc.

Q.26 How do pressure groups and movement exert pressure on politics? Explain with an example.

Ans 26. Pressure groups and movements strengthen democracy:

▪ They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carry out information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions etc.

▪ They often organize protest activities like strike etc.

▪ Sometimes the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.

▪ Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.

Q.27 Compare the popular struggles of Nepal and Bolivia.

Ans 27. In Bolivia’s popular struggle, the struggle was against a aspect of a democratic government. I get inspiration from Bolivia’s struggle when reading about the democratic conflict through mass mobilization. I am inspired by the popular participation and democratic conflict through political organization. When the rights of people are underkept, people can force the government through popular participation. The political
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organizations which helped in Bolivia’s water war came to power in next elections. Thus, Bolivia’s water war reflects mass mobilization, helping mentality of political organization and concerned individuality of people as a citizen.

Q.28 “Globalisation has been advantageous to consumers as well as to producers”. Support with suitable examples.

Ans 28. Impact of Globalization-

▪ Globalization and greater competition among producers have a greater advantage to consumers.

▪ The greater choice before consumers.

▪ Availability of standard quality products at lower price.

▪ Improvement in living standard.

▪ Foreign investments have increased in many areas like cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks etc.

▪ A new job has been created.

▪ Several of the units have shut down rendering many workers jobless.

▪ Globalization has also created insecurity of job.

Q.29 Why are the rules and regulations required in the market- place? Explain.

Ans 29. We participate in the market both as producers and consumers. Producers produce their goods and sell their products in the market. Consumers buy those goods produced and they buy the final finished goods.

Rules and regulations have been made to protect workers in the unorganized sector. Similarly, rules and regulations have been made to protect consumers in the market place because consumers are often exploited in the market place. If we complain about a product, the shopkeeper turns the responsibility to the consumers. As they are not bothered when the sale is over. For ex: the shopkeeper tells the consumers,” if you don’t like what you bought. please go elsewhere”. Consumers are also exploited in the market place by some false methods such as reducing the weight of the products, the black-marketing, hoarding, rampant food shortages, adulteration, etc. In the olden day, it was the responsibility of the consumer to be aware of the products. But now different consumers groups have been formed and it gives as serval rights such as:

1.Right to safety

2.Right to information

3.Right to seek redressed

4.Right to represent.

Q.30 Name the state where Kandla seaport is located.?

Ans 30. Gujarat is the State where Kandla seaport is located.

Q.31 Name the place where the movement of indigo planters was started.

Ans 31. Champaran.

Q.32 Describe any four merits of road transportation.

Ans 32. Four merits of air transport are listed below:

▪ It is comfortable and the fastest means of transport.

▪ It provides access to inaccessible places and prestigious made of transport.

▪ It is the best means of transport used in the natural calamity.

▪ It has helped to reach the region of difficult, rugged relief especially northeastern states of India.

Q.33 Which government body supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans in India? Explain.

Ans 33. The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans.

Q.34 Explain any three effects of the Non- Cooperation Movement on the economy of India.

Ans 34. Reasons for slowing down of Non-Cooperation Movement:

▪ The Indians could not boycott for a long time because Khadi cloth was more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.

▪ The boycott of British institutions posed a problem as an alternative Indian institution had to be set up so that they could be used in place of British ones.

▪ Students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts in the absence of alternate Indian Institutions.

Q.35 What is a Trade Barrier? Why did the Indian Government put up trade barriers after Independence? Explain.

Ans 35. Trade barrier is a kind of restriction imposed by government so as to regulate free trade, thereby regulating exchange. The country decides what goods would come, how much etc. These are imposed for three reasons-

▪ supporting indigenous producers.

▪ developing infrastructure.

▪ the progress of the country. Eg. tax on imports

Reason: After colonization of British for our 200 years, India’s whole infrastructure development came to an end. The time between 1950-1960 was known as a period of development liberalization of that point of time would not have allowed small infants industries to the computer with giant MNC’s and no infrastructure development would have been possible. Moreover, all developed countries at the initial step had imposed trade barriers and allowed.

Q.36 Explain how dynastic succession is a major challenge for political parties in India.?

Ans 36. The three challenges faced by political parties in India are:-

▪ Lack of internal democracy.

▪ Challenge of dynastic succession.

▪ The growing role of Money and Muscle power.

▪ Often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters.

Q.37 Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.

Ans 37. Gandhiji when came back to India in Jan 1915 started :

▪ It is a novel method of mass agitation

▪ Its tools are truth and non-violence.

▪ Under this, if the cause was true and struggle was against injustice, it did not require force to win battle oppressive i.e. he had to be persuaded to see the truth, rather using force to accept it.

▪ He considered this method of Ahinsa to bring unity In this battle, the truth was bound to triumph.

▪ It was a movement of active resistance, it calls for great courage and determination to show, love who is appressed i.e. he had to be persuaded to see the truth, rather using force to accept it.

Q.38 ‘Environmental degradation has been seen everywhere’. Explain any three values that can help to prevent environmental degradation.

Ans 38. steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India are –

Every liter of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of freshwater.

▪ Minimizing use of water for processing by Reusing and Recycling it in two or more successive stages.

▪ Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.

▪ Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

▪ Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators.

▪ Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.

▪ Machinery and equipment can be used, and generators should be fitted with silencers.

▪ Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.

Q.39 How is democratic government known as responsive government? Explain with an example.

Ans 39. Government (democratic) is known as a responsive government. It is responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. Eg.The right to information act was passed by the government of India in 2005. By this act, almost all the citizens can have the right to be informed about the goods and services they have bought. This Act was passed with respect to the need of the citizen. Thus, democratic government produces a responsive government where people can easily access the decisions taken by it. This phenomenon is known as transparency.


 

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