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Very Short Answer Question
Que.No.1. What are National highways?
Ans- One state to another state is connected by National highways. These are constructed and maintained by central government.
Que.No.2. What are express way National highways?
Ans- Express way National highways are for the fast movement of traffic in the country. These include 4 and 6 lanes for long distances fast moving traffic.
Que.No.3. Name the places which will be connected by Golden Quadrilateral express way highways.
Ans-The Golden Quadrilateral express way highways will connect Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi. Its total length is 5846 km.
Que.No.4.What are the international highways? Name one such highway.
Ans-The highway which connects one country with another are called international highways.Example – Kolkata to Pesawar.
Que.No.5. Name any four international ports of India.
Ans- International ports of India:
(i) Mumbai (ii) Kolkata (iii) Chennai (iv) Kandla.
Que.No.6. Name two Inland waterways of India.
Ans- The inland waterways of India-
(i) The Ganga River between Allahabad to Haldia.
(ii) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya to Dhubri.
Que.No.7. Name major ports on the east coast of India.
Ans- The major ports on the east cost:
(i) Kolkata (ii) Haldia (iii) Paradip (iv) Chennai (v) Ennore (vi) Tuticorin (vii) Vishakhapatnam.
Que.No.8. Name the states where Marmagao, New Mangalore, Paradip and Tuticorin ports are located?
Ans- (i) Marmagao – Goa.(ii) New Mangalore – Karnataka.(iii) Paradip – Orissa.(iv) Tuticorin – Tamil Nadu.
Que.No.9. Name three means of mass communication.
Ans- The important means of mass communication :
(i) Radio (ii) Television (iii) Newspapers.
Que.No.10. Name two first class mails.
Ans- First class mail are:
Que.No.11. Name two major ports on the west coast.
Ans-Major ports on the west coast are :(i) Mumbai (ii) Cochin
Que.No.12. State the types of gauges. What are the advantages of Uni gauge?
Ans- The three types of gauges are:
(i) Broad Gauge – 1.675 m.(ii) Meter Gauge – 1 meter. (iii) Narrow Gauge – 0.610m.
Uni gauge system of railways ensures higher speed, larger capacity, reduction in transshipment and cheaper transportation cost.
Que.No.13. What are the significance of Airways?
Ans-Significance of Airways:-
(i) Fastest modes of transport.
(ii) Airways are the best means of transport in the remote, hostile and inaccessible areas.
(iii) It plays a vital role in natural event and calamities like floods, earthquakes, famines, fires, etc.
Que.No.14. The great Plains have more railways than the Himalayan mountains. Why?
Ans-The distribution pattern of the railway network is influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The Great Plains of India has leveled land, high population density, rich agriculture and greater industrial activity. Hence this plain has more railways than Himalayan Mountain.
Que.No.15. What are the problems of railways today?
Ans : Problems of railway are :
(i) Ticket-less passengers (ii) Unnecessary chain pulling (iii) People stop trains causing heavy loss.(iv) Theft and damaging of railway property.
Que.No.16. Write the advantages of the pipeline transportation for petroleum and natural gas.
Ans- (i) Pipeline transportation is fast, safe, clean and free from delays.
(ii) Crude oil, petroleum product and natural gas can easily be transported from oil/natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal plants easily.
(iii) The thermal power plants can now be constructed very close to their market.
(iv) For such facilities refineries can be constructed in the interior such as Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and Karnal.
Que.No.17. What is meant by favourable balance of trade? Discuss whether India’s foreign trade is favourable or not?
Ans- The difference between imports and exports is known as balance of trade. If exports are more than imports, the balance of trade is favourable or positive.India’s foreign trade is not favourable as value of our imports are more than the exports due to our increasing demands and growing economy.
Que.No.18. Describe various types of roads in India.
Ans- Depending on the construction, maintenance and administration Indian roads are classified as under :
(i) National Highways – Constructed and maintained by the Central Government, which connect State capitals, big cities and ports across the country.
(ii) State Highways – Constructed and maintained by the State Government, which connect the state capital with the major cities, town and districts of the state
(iii) District Roads – Join district headquarters with town of the district.
(iv) Village Roads – Connect village with towns.
(v) Border Roads – Constructed and maintained by Central Government. The defence of our country depends on these roads. The world’s highest road is from Manali to Leh.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTION
Que.No.1. What are super highways? Name 3 major super highway projects.
Ans- Super highways are six lane highways connecting major cities and ports of the country for speedy movement of goods and passengers. They are developed by NHAI for reducing time and distance.
3 super highways are:
1) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: It links Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
2) The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu)
3) East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat)
Que.No.2. What are national highways?
Ans- National highways link all major cities of extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems. They are maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
Que.No.3. What are state highways?
Ans- Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.
Que.No.4. What are district roads?
Ans- Roads which connect the district headquarters with other places of the district are called district roads. These roads are maintained by the ZilaParishad.
Que.No.5. What are rural roads?
Ans- Roads which link rural areas and villages with towns are classified as rural roads.
Under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana scheme special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
Que.No.6. What are border roads? Mention its two importances.
Ans- Strategically important roads in the bordering areas of the country are called border roads. These roads are in the northern and north-eastern border areas.
Importance of Border roads: -
1) Border roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.
2) They have helped in the economic development of border areas.
3) Used to supply military equipments to the borders of our country.
Que.No.7. State any four problems of Road transport in the country.
Ans- Major Problems are:
i. Road transportation in India is inadequate keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers.
ii. About half of the roads are un-metal and this limits their usage during the rainy season.
iii. The National Highways are inadequate too.
iv. Moreover, the roadways are highly congested in cities
v. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Que.No.8. Describe the importance of Railways in India.
Ans- Indian Railways has been
i. The principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
ii. Suitable for long distance travel.
iii. Conduct of multiple activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods.
iv. Plays an important role of national integration.
v. Bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.
vi. The largest public sector undertaking in the country.
Que.No.9. Describe the factors which influence the distribution pattern of Railway network in India.
Ans- The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
i. The density railway network is high in the northern plains because they are vast level land, have high population density and rich agricultural resources.
But, a large number of rivers create obstacles because it requires construction of bridges across their wide beds.
ii. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels therefore it difficult to construct railway lines.
iii. The Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
iv. It is difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
v. Sinking of track in some areas and land slides makes it difficult for railways.
Que.No.10 Mention some of the problems faced by the Indian Railways.
Ans- Rail transport in our country suffer from certain problems such as -
i. Many passengers travel without tickets.
ii. Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
iii. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.
Que.No.11. Describe the importance of Pipelines in India.
Ans- Pipelines are important for -
i. They are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil fields and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
ii. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
iii. Because of pipelines, refineries at Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants, could be located in the interiors of India.
iv. Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
v. Pipelines rules out trans-shipment (during transportation) losses or delays.
Que.No.12. Name three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
Ans- The 3 important networks of pipelines are -
i. Pipeline from oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh).
ii. Pipeline from Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab,
iii. Pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh.
Que.No.13. Mention the importance of water transport.
Ans- Water transport is important for -
i. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
ii. They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
iii. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
Que.No.14. Name three National Waterways of our country.
Ans- The 3 National waterways are -
i. The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1
ii. The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2
iii. The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Komman, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3
Que.No.15. Mention the importance of airways.
Ans- The importance of airways is -
i. It is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
ii. It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, and dense forests.
iii. It can also cover long oceanic stretches with great ease.
iv. Airways have made access easier in the north-eastern part of the country which has big rivers, dissected relief, dense forests and frequent floods and international frontiers.
Que.No.16. Name six mail channels introduced by Indian postal network.
Ans. Six mail channels for quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities:
i. Rajdhani Channel,
ii. Metro Channel,
iii. Green Channel,
iv. Business Channel,
v. Bulk Mail Channel
vi. Periodical Channel.
Que.No.17. Mention the importance of mass communication.
Ans- The importance of mass communications are -
i. Mass communication provides entertainment.
ii. They create awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
iii. They provide variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country.
iv. They strengthen democracy in the country by providing news and information to the masses.
v. They help in rural development which is suffering from illiteracy and superstitious social practices.
vi. It helps in agriculture sector by helping farmers by providing them information about new agricultural practices.
Que.No.18. Define international trade. Why it is considered as economic barometer of a country?
Ans. International trade is defined as the exchange of goods and services between two or more countries.
It is also considered as economic barometer because
a. Advancement in international trade of a country leads to economic prosperity.
b. Income earned from international trade constitutes a major part in the net national income.
c. Large international trade leads to revival of domestic economy.
Que.No.19. Define balance of trade. Distinguish between favourable balance of trade and unfavourable balance of trade.
Ans: The difference between export and import is known as balance of trade.
Difference between favourable and unfavourable balance of trade:
a. If the value of exports is more than the value of imports, it is called favourable balance of trade. And if the value of imports is greater than the value of exports it is known as unfavourable balance of trade.
b. Favourable balance of trade is regarded good for the economic development where as unfavourable balance of trade is seen harmful for the domestic economy.
Que.No.20. Name major commodities which India import and export.
Ans: Major commodities which India import and export:
i. Major Exports:
a. Gems and jewellery.
b. Agriculture and allied products.
c. Petroleum products.
d. Ores and Minerals
e. Chemical products.
f. Engineering goods.
ii. Major Imports:
a. Petroleum and petroleum products such as crude oil, natural gas, synthetic raw materials.
b. Pearls and precious stone
c. Inorganic chemicals
d. coal, coke and briquettes
Que.No.21. Mention the importance of tourism as a trade.
Ans: The importance is -
i. Our country earns foreign exchange through Tourism.
ii. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
iii. Tourism also promotes national integration,
iv. It provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
v. It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
vi. Heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism promotes development of all sectors of economy.
LONG ANSWER QUESTION
Que.No.1. What are the advantages of roads over railways? Or (How does road transport score over railways?) What are the problems faced by the road transportation in India?
Ans- (a) Roads are important for transport of goods and passengers for short and medium distances. (b) Road transport is relatively cheap and easy both in construction and maintenance. (c) It can be constructed even in mountainous terrain where as railways are not possible in these areas. Railways require levelled ground. (d) Roads connect areas of production with market, factories with farms and provide door-to-door service. (e) Road transport is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air port and seaports. (f) For easy transportation of perishable goods, roads provide better service than the railways.
The problems faced by road transportation are the following: (a) The road network in India is inadequate keeping in view of the number of passengers and volume of traffic. (b) About half of the roads in India are un-surfaced which becomes muddy during the rainy season. c) The National Highways are inadequate and highly congested in the cities and their bridges and culverts are narrow. (d ) The road side amenities like telephone ,books ,emergency health services and police protection on the national highways are very poor and need improvement.
Que.No.2. Name the different types of roads in India.
Ans- (a) Super Highways: (Express ways) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi is a six lane super highway. North South Corridor connecting Srinagar and Kanyakumari and East West Corridor connecting Silcher in Assam and Porbandhar in Gujarat are also super highways
Theses are maintained by the National Highway Authority of India.
(b) National Highways: These connect one state with another and are of national importance. These are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department. There are about 52,000 Km of National Highways in India. E.g. N.H. 17, N.H...47 etc.
(c) State Highways: These roads are constructed and maintained by state Governments. It connects state capital with district head quarters and with other important cities of the states. There are about 1.3 lakh Km of state highways in India.
(d) The District Roads: These roads connect district headquarters with cities and other places of the district. These roads are constructed and maintained by the District administration.
(e) Other Roads : Village roads connect villages with neighboring towns and cities. These roads receive special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(f) Border Roads: The border roads link the frontiers of the country. The border roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organization (BRO). 6. State the characteristics of the North –South Corridor. a) It connects Srinagar in Jammu Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu.
Que.No.3. State the characteristics of the North –South Corridor.
Ans- a) It connects Srinagar in Jammu Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. b) It is the longest express way in India. c) It is a four to six lane road. d) It is meant for fast movement of traffic. e) Much roundabouts or junctions are not seen f) Roads are not cut at right angles and no fear of vehicles crossing- accidents are less.
Que.No.4. How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railway network? Explain with suitable examples.
Ans-Physiographic factors: (a) Railways require level land for its construction. It is not possible to construct a railway line in the mountains terrains . Flood plains of Bihar and Assam and rugged topography of the Himalayan region are not good for railway service. (b) Sparsely populated areas like sandy deserts of Rajasthan are not good for railway network. It requires high density of population for its growth. (c) Northern plains of India have dense network of railway, because their vast level land , high density of population and rich agricultural resources. NM ISB - 124 - (d) Economic factors. a) Rich agriculture ensures the development of railways for easy and cheap transportation of agricultural goods. b) Greater industrial activity is required in areas where development of railways is expected. Movements of goods and passengers support the railways.
Que.No.5. Name the railway zones with their Headquarters.
Ans- (a) Northern Railway- New Delhi (b) Southern Railway- Chennai (c) Eastern Railway- Kolkata (d) Western Railway – Mumbai (e) Central Railway -Mumbai (f) North-Eastern Railway – Gorakhpur (g) South Eastern Railway– Kolkata (h) South Central Railway – Secundarabad (i) North Eastern Frontier Railway- Maligoan (Guwahati) (j) East Coast Rail way-Bhubaneshwar (k) North Central Railway- Allahabad (l) North Western Railway Jaipur (m)South East Central Railway- Bilaspur (n) South Western Railway –Hubli (o) West Central Railway- Jabalpur (p) East Central Railway-Hajipur 13. What are pipelines used for? Describe two important network of pipeline.