CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialization Important Questions

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Objective Questions

Question : Give one word for - "The process in which fibers, such as cotton or wool, are prepared prior to spinning" 
(a) Weaving
(b) Carding
(c) Fuller
(a) Spinning
Answer : B
Explanation: The process in which fibers, such as cotton or wool, are prepared prior to spinning. 
 
Question : What are vertical threads in Flying shuttle called? 
(a) Warp
(b) Weft
(c) Wrap
(a) Wrinkle
Answer : A
Explanation: Vertical threads in Flying shuttle are called Warp 
 
Question : European Managing Agencies were interested in which type of factories? 
(a) Opium and Indigo
(b) Sugar and Chemical
(c) Tea and Coffee
(a) Silk and Cotton
Answer :  C
Explanation: European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations. 
 
Question : Identify the machine with the help of following information :
i. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand.
ii. By turning one single wheel a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time. 
(a) Mule
(b) Flying Shuttle
(c) Spinning Jenny
(d) Persian Wheel
Answer :  C
Explanation: Spinning Jenny – Devised by James Hargreaves in 1764, this machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time.
 
Question : Which medium tries to shape the minds of people and create new needs and makes products appear desirable? 
(a) Culture
(b) Labels
(c) Advertisements
(d) Tradition
Answer :  C
Explanation: One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. They appear in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, television screens.
 
Question : Identify the city:
i. This city is on the coast
ii. This city connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(a) Madras
(b) Surat
(c) Calicut
(d) Mumbai
Answer :  B
Explanation: Surat on Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf & Red sea ports;

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question : Name the first country to undergo Industrial Revolution. 
Answer : The first country to undergo the Industrial Revolution is Britain.
 
Question : Name some industries where labour demand was seasonal. 
Answer : Industries like wine breweries, book-binding, gas works, ship-repairing and printing were some industries where labour demand was seasonal.

Question : When did East India company was established?
Answer : 1600 

Question : When did the earliest factories come up in England?
(a) 1720        (b) 1730        (c) 1740        (d) 1750
Answer : 1730 

Question : Who invented steam engine?
Answer : James watt 

Question : Who designed spinning jenny and when?
Answer : James Hargreaves in 1764 

Question : Whose image was used to popularized Baby product ?
Answer :  The image of Baby Krishna. 

Question : Which was the first country to undergo Industrial Revolution?
Answer : Britain 

Question : Who established the first jute mill in India in 1854?
Answer : Seth Hukum Chand in 1854 

Question : When did the Elgin Mill start ?
Answer : 1860s. 

Question : Who were the paid servants of the East India Company?
Answer :  Gomastha 

Question : What was the fly shuttle used for?
Answer : It was used for weaving 

Question : What were trade guilds?
Answer : Trade guild were association of
(a)  Trained craft person and artists
(b)  Regulate the competition and price
(c)   Restricted the entry of new people in trade

Question : What were trade guilds? 
Answer : Trade guilds were producers' association that trained craft people, maintained control over production, restricted the entry of new people into the trade and regulated prices and competition.
 
Question : Who was Henry Patullo? What did he say about the Indian textiles? 
Answer : Henry Patullo was an East India Company official. In 1772, Henry Patullo had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce since no other nation produced goods of the same quality.

 

Short Answer Type Questions

Question :  Do you think that technological changes occurred slowly? 
Answer : i. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape.
ii. New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it.
iii. The machines often broke down and repair was costly.
iv. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed. So, these technological changes occurred slowly.
 
Question : Who were Gomasthas? How did they help the East India Company to assert a monopoly of right to trade? Explain. 
Answer : The East India Company appointed a paid servant called the Gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloths. Gomastha helped the company to establish their monopoly as:
i. Those weavers who took loans had to the hand over the cloths they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
ii. The new Gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched in to villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply.
 
Question : Why were most of the producers reluctant to use new technology? Give any three reasons. 
Answer : Most of the producers were reluctant to use new technology because:
i. Technological changes occurred slowly. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape.
ii. New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it.
iii. The machines often broke down and repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
iv. The reason was that the typical workers in the mid-nineteenth century were not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labour.
v. In the industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists preferred hand labour than machines.
 
Question : Explain the position of Indian Textiles in the international market before machines were introduced in India.  
Answer : The Indian Textiles held a leading position in the international market before machines were introduced in India.
i. Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles.
ii. Coarser cotton was produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India. 
iii. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the North West frontier. Also, a vibrant sea trade operated through main pre-colonial ports - Surat, Masulipatnam and Hoogly.

Question : How did the East India Company procured regular supplies of cotton and silk textile from Indian weavers?
Answer :  (a) They appointed the paid supervisor called Gomastha
(b) supplies and examined cloth quality of the weavers
(c) Advance loan     

Question : Why did some industrialists in the 19th century Europe prefer hand labor to machines?
Answer :  (a) costly ,ineffective, difficult to repair and need too hug capital
(b) labour was available at low cost
(c) in  seasonal industries  only seasonal labour was required 

Question : What were the functions of a jobber?
Answer :  (a) he lured people from his village ensuring them jobs.
(b) he also help them settle in the city and lent the money in time of crisis
(c) slowly jobbers become person with authority and power 

Question : How did Indian National Movement affect Indian entrepreneurs?
Answer :  (a) boycotted and burned by swadeshi activist
          (b) indigenous industrialist demand tariff protection and grants from govt. 

Question : How did new inventions and technology help in setting of the factory concept?
Answer :  (a) New invention and technology increase the efficiency of each step of production process
(b) It enhanced the production output per worker
(c) It made production of stronger threads and yarn 

Question : What were the advantages of cotton mill?
Answer :  (a) production process was carefully supervised and monitored
(b) Quality of production could be control
(c) Labour could be managed and supervised easily

Question :  Why were merchants not able to expand productions within the towns of England?
Answer :  (a) Town or urban craft and trade guild were extremely powerful.
(b) the guild controlled the prices as will as manufacturing.
(c) they did not let any out sider trade and control local market without permission 

Question : Describe any three problems of Indian weavers at the early 19th century. 
Answer :  (a) Shortage of raw material
(b) Clashes with gomastha
(c) System of advance 

Question : `What was the result of first world war on Indian industries?
Answer :  (a) British mill busy with production of war material
(b) Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market
(c) The Indian factories were called supply war material as jute bags, cloth for uniform, leather boot

 

Long Answer Type Questions

Question : List the various problems faced by the Indian weavers in the 19th century. 
Answer : The following problems were faced by Indian weavers by the turn of the 19th century:
a. As the cotton industry developed in England, the industrial groups were worried about exports from other countries. They pressurised the government to introduce import duties on textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without any competition.
b. Because of the heavy import duty on Indian cotton textile, the export market in India collapsed. The local market was flooded with Manchester textile. Being produced by machines, it was cheaper than Indian-made textile. Weavers could not compete with this situation. Weaving regions declined and were desolated.
c. At the same time, the manufacturers persuaded the Company to sell their goods in the colonies and Indian markets as well. By 1850 the cotton piece goods constituted 31 per cent of the value of Indian imports.
d. The weavers faced twin problems-their export market was crumbling and the local market shrinking. The Indian markets were flooded with Manchester textile, it was machine-made and very cheap.
e. By 1860s, weavers faced another problem of shortage of raw cotton of good quality. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton suppliers from the US were cut. The cotton exports from India increased and went spiralling.
f. The weavers lost the bargaining power after taking advances from the Company.
They had to sell their produce at a miserably low price.
g. Apart from that, factory production in India had started, Machine-made Indian goods also flooded the market. Weavers, thus, could not survive in a situation where there were problems all around.


Question : Explain the five causes of Industrial Revolution in England. 
Answer : The five causes of Industrial Revolution in England are:
i. Inventions: A series of invention in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process and paved the way for industrialization in England.
ii. Overseas trade: There had been enormous expansion in overseas trade of Britain.
This was one of the major causes of technological revolution.
iii. Surplus benefit: The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on the machinery and building. This led to new technological developments.
iv. Geographical location: The geographical location of England greatly helped in industrial revolution. It had extensive coastline and many navigable rivers when water was the easiest means of transportation.
v. Factories: In the early nineteenth century, factories increasingly became an intimate part of the English landscape. So visible were the imposing new mills, so magical seemed to be the power of new technology, that contemporaries were dazzled. 


Question : Explain the main features of proto-industrialization.
Answer : (a) production was not based on factories
            (b) large scale homemade production for international market
            (c) it proved alternative source of income
            (d) it helped in full use of their family labour resource 

Question : How did the British market expand their goods in India?
Answer :  (a) they try to shape the mind of people and create new needs.
            (b) The labels were needs to make the place.
            (c) Image of Indian Gods on goods to being sold.
            (d) printing calendars to popularize their products.

 

Question : ”The Industrial Revolution was a mixed Blessing”------Explain.
Answer :  (a) fulfill the demand of world population
        (b) only machine have made possible for the mankind to meet the primary necessities of foods, cloth  and shelter.
       (c) machines have brought more leisure.

 

Question : How did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Answer :     (A) British mills becomes busy with war product
             (B) Indian factories had vast home market to supply goods.
             (C) Indian factories called upon to supply the war product as jute bags, cloths for army uniform ,Tents and leather boots.
             (D) New factories were set up and o0ld one run multiple stuffs.
             (E) After the war Manchester could not recapture its old position in India market


Question : State the reasons for increasing in production of cotton textile.
Answer :  (a) invention of 18th century  as cotton mill by Richard Arkwright.
          (b) Enhanced output per worker by machine like cotton mills.
          (c) Quality product with strong threads
          (e) Maintenance of mill made easier if located in one place
          (f) Efficient management due to regulation.

 

 

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