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[A]. 1 MARK QUESTIONS:-
Que.No.1: What is allegory?
Ans:- When an obstruct idea is expressed through a person or a thing.An allegorical story has two meanings:- one literal and one symbolic.
Que.No.2: What are the allegories of France and Germany?
Ans:- The allegory of France was Marianne and the allegory of Germany was Germania.
Que.No.3: What do you mean by conservatism?
Ans:- Apolitical philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs and preferred development to quick change.
Que.No.4: What do you mean by 'Romanticism'?
Ans:- Romanticism refers to cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment through emotions ,folk ,songs, poetry, songs and dances.
Que.No.5: Who hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
Ans:- Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich hosted the congress of Vienna in 1815.
Que.No.6: What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalist?
Ans:- The major issue taken up by the liberal nationalist was freedom of press.
Que.No.7: Who remarked that 'when France sneeze the rest of Europe catches cold'?
Ans:- Duke Metternich .
Que.No.8: Who was proclaimed the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?
Ans:- Prussian King William-I.
Que.No.9: Who headed Sardinia-Piedmont?
Ans:- Victor Emmanuel-II.
Que.No.10: When Greece became an independent nation?
[B] 3 MARKS QUESTIONS:-
Que.No.1: State any three provisions of Civil Code of 1804.
Ans:- Provisions of Civil Code 1804:
(i)Abolished the feudal system.
(ii)The Right to property.
(iii)Did away with all privilages based on birth.
Que.No.2: State any three features of 'Nation State' that emerged in Europe in the 20th century.
Ans:- Three features of 'Nation State' are follwing that emerged in Europe in the 20th century:
(i)Nation State was supposed to be a state where majority of its citizens shared common identity.
(ii)The concept and practice of a Nation State with soverign centralised power develop in India.
(iii)Nation to be personified that i.e. they were represented as a person with characteristics that identified their nation.
Que.No.3: Describe any three economic hardship faced by Europe in the 1830s.
Ans:- Three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830 are following:
(i)The unemployed rural people migrated from villages to cities.
(ii)Peasants suffered because of less agricultural facilities, burden of feudal dues and price rise.
(iii)Cheap machine made goods from England made it impossible for the small producers to compete.
Que.No.4:.When and why was the Zollverein formed?
Ans:- Zollverein was formed in 1834.
It was formed to abolished tarriff barriers which was hindering movement of goods,people and capital.
Que.No.5: Explain any three beliefs of the Conservatives that emerged after 1815.
Ans:- Followings are the three beliefs:
(i)They were intolerent to the criticism.
(ii)They sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic government.
(iii)Most of them imposed censorship laws to control the ideas ,liberty and freedom associated with French Revolution.
Que.No.6: The development of nationalism did not come about only through territorial expansion .Culture play an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
Ans:- Cultured played an important role in creating the idea of a nation in Europe in the following ways:-
(i) Art, music literature and drama helped to express shape and strengthen nationalist sentiments.
(ii) Romantics like German philosopher JohanN Gottfried Herder held the view that true German culture could be discovered only among the common people the 'das volk'.
(iii) Language too boosted nationalism.Example: Languages became a weapon of the nationalism.
Que.No.7: What was the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy?
Ans:- (i)He became member of the secret society of the Carbonari
(ii)He founded Young Italy in Marseillies and then Young Europe in Berne whose members were like minded young men from Poland,Franc ,Italy etc.
(iii)He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
[C]. 5 MARKS QUESTIONS:-
Que.No.1: How did French revolutioneries create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Ans:- (i)The idea of 'la patrie' and 'le citoyen' emphasised this nation.
(ii)The tricolour ,new French flag was replaced by the royal standard.
(iii)Uniform laws were formulated for all its citizens under a centralised administrative system.
(iv)The body of active citizens elected the Estate General and it was renamed National Assembly.
(v)New hymns were composed , oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
Que.No.2: Who were the personalities that took part in the Unification of Italy?
Ans:- There were four personalities who took part in the process of Italian unification
a. Giuseppe Mazzini- during the 1830s, Mazzini devised efforts to unite italy. He formed a secret society Young Itally in 1831 which intended to fulfill his goal
b. Count Cavour- he was the Italian chief minister who unified the region of Italy. He spoke French with his tactful diplomacy sought the help France in defeating Austrian forces in 1859.
c. Giuseppe Garibaldi- Under the leadership of garibaldi, many volunteers and local peasants joined in regular troops. He succeded in winning the support of local peasants and drove the Spanish away.
Que.No.3: Describe the Unification of Germany.
Ans:- a. establishment of a contitutional monarch under Prussia.
b. efforts of middle class Germans.
c. initiative taken by Bismark and bureaucracy.
d three wars over seven years against Austria, Denmark and France
e. German unification completed with the proclaimation of William I as a emperor of united Germany.
Que.No.4: Discuss the reasons for the emergence of nationalist tension in the Balkan.
Ans:- a. ethinic and geographical diversities and breaking up of Ottoman Empire
b. most of nations declared thier independence.
c. awareness of people for thier independence and glorified history.
d. the stuggles by Slavic nationalities and thrust of gaining more territories.
e. big powers like Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary interest in expanding their trade in balkan.
Que.No.5: What values were instilled among the French people by the French revolutionaries?
Ans:- a. sence of collective belonging
b. equality before law
c. spirit of Nationalism
d. sense of freedom and liberty
e uniform administration