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Que.No.1: What is the meaning of ‘Begar’?
Ans. Forced labour
Que.No.2: Name the writer of novel ‘Anandmath’.
Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Que.No.3: What is meant by Satyagraha?
Ans. To emphasize the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
Que.No.4: Who formed Swaraj party?
Ans. C.R.Das and MotiLal Nehru
Que.No.5: In which year Inland Emigration Act was passed?
Que.No.6: Who was the writer of ‘Hind Swaraj’?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi
Que.No.7: In which year JaliawalaBagh incident took place?
Que.No.8: Who was the founder of HSRA?
Que.No.9: What was the demand of peasants in Awadh?
Ans. Abolition of forced labour, illegal evicition, reduce land revenue
Que.No.10: What was the significance of the Lahore Session ?
Ans. The demand for Purna swaraj was made by the congress.
Que.No.11: Why was Non-cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. A)Demand of swaraj.
b) infavour of khilafat
c) Rowlat Act and Jallianwalabagh massacre.
Que.No.12: How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from Non –cooperation movement?
Ans. i) In Non cooperation movement refuse to cooperate with colonial government ,while in civil Disobedience movement people violated the colonial law.
ii) Muslims and Hindus jointly supported the Non cooperation movement but Muslims were lukewarm on their support to the Civil Disobedience movement .
iii)This movement was launched in 1920 in a peaceful way. Civil Disobedience movement was launched in 1930 in a violent way.
Que.No.13: Which three early satyagraha movements were organized by Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans. A) Champaran in Bihar(1916)
b) Kheda Gujarat(1917)
c). Ahmedabad (1918)
Que.No.14: How was the collective belonging developed during the freedom movement?
Ans. i) Through the experience of united struggle .
ii) Through the cultural process
iii) Through the re-interpretation of history
Que.No.15: What do you know about Natesa Sastri?
Ans. i) Natesa Sastri collected the folk tales of southern India
ii) He published it in four massive volumes and titles the folk lore of southern India.
iii) He believed that folklore was national literature
Que.No.16: How did the salt Satyagraha become an effective tool of resistance against British colonialism in India during 1930? Explain.
Ans. i) Salt is used by all the people belonging to all communities,
ii) govt. had monopoly to manufacture it.
iii) govt. imposed heavy tax on it.
Que.No.17: Who had designed the ‘Swaraj flag’ in 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘Swaraj flag’.
Ans. i) Mahatma Gandhi
ii) Tricolour(red ,green ,white)
iii) spinning wheel in the center representing the Gandhian idea of self help
Que.No.18: Why did different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Ans. i) Peasants- to reduce land revenue
ii) Industrialist- increase import duty on foreign goods
iii) Industrial labour- to increase wages and improvement in working condition.
Que.No.19 : Examine the background of Poona pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhi and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar?
Ans. i) Colonial govt. declared for separate electorate for Dalit
ii) Gandhiji was against that decision.
iii) Gandhiji went on hunger strike
iv) Then compromise between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar and both agreed for reserved seats for the Depressed class but to be voted from General electorate.
Que.No.20: What do you know about the peasant’s movement in Awadh?
Ans. i) It was organized by baba Ramchandra .
ii) He was a sanyashi worked as indentured labour in Fiji.
iii) Abolition of forced labour, illegal eviction, reduce land revenue.
iv) Talukadars were socially boycotted,nai dhobi band andolan was organize
v) Awadh kishan sabha was formed by Jawahar lal Nehru.
Que.No.21: Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability.
Ans. i) Harijanyatra was organized
ii) To glorify the work of Harijan Gandhiji himself cleaning the toilet.
iii) Gandhiji asked the upper caste to gave up untouchability .
iv) And soft corner towards Dalits.
Que.No.22: Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to viceroy Irwin on 31st January,1930?Why was abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand?
Ans. i)General demands related to all communities
ii) Specific for particular community(from industrialist to peasants)
iii) Salt is belonging to all community from richest to poorest.
Que.No.23: Why did the Muslims feel alienated from congress during the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. i) Muslim began to organized under the Muslim league leaded by Md.Ali Jinnah
ii) Hindu Mahasabha also became active and began to demand for Hindu
iii) Both Hindu and Muslim leader considered that congress was a party of Hindu
iv) Congress was unable to setup a balance between different caste and community
v) 14 demand of Md. Jinnah was refused by congress
Important Questions for NCERT Class 10 Social Science Nationalism In India
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi organise the Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi organised the Champaran Satyagraha in order to voice against the oppressive indigo plantation system.
Question. What was the Civil Disobedience Movement associated with?
Ans. It was associated with the breaking of salt law.
Question. Give a brief description of Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha Movements which he organised in various places after arriving in India from South Africa.
Name the two main ‘Satyagraha Movement’ organised by Mahatma Gandhi Successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.
Ans. After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi organised several Satyagraha Movements in various places:
(i) Champaran: In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the exploitative plantation system.
(ii) Kheda: In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha Movement in support of the Kheda peasants in Gujarat. These peasants were very much worried due to crop failure and a plague epidemic. Since they could not pay the revenue, they demanded relaxation in revenue collection.
(iii) Ahmedabad: In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha Movement among the workers of cotton mills.
Question. Who led the Awadh peasants during the Non-cooperation Movement?
Ans. Baba Ramchandra led the Awadh peasants during the Non-cooperation movement.
Question. Who wrote Vande Mataram? What is it?
Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote Vande Mataram. It is a hymn to the motherland.
Question. How did the business classes participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. (i) The business classes supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
(ii) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
(iii) Most businessmen came to see Swaraj at a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(iv) But after the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic. So, when the movement was re-launched by Gandhiji, most of them withdrew their support.
(v) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business.
Question. How culture played a vital role in awakening of the feeling of nationalism?
Ans. Culture played a significant role in awakening the feeling of nationalism:
(i) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a vital role in evoking the feelings of nationalism, unity and sense of collective belonging.
(ii) Symbols in figures or images helped people to identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be usually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
(iii) In the 1870s Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
(iv) Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. He made it an ascetic figure: calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to this mother figure came to the open as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(v) In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and started the movement for folk revival.
(vi) In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India.
(vii) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed consisting of eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
(viii) By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Question. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.
Ans. Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together. The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or image. It was the 20th century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. It was essential to preserve folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history. Indians wrote about glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised. These nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.
Question. How did women in India respond to Mahatma Gandhi’s call for Civil Disobedience Movement?
Explain the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. Women participated in large numbers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(i) During the Salt March thousands of women came out of their homes to participate in protest marches, boycott of foreign clothes and liquor shops and the manufacture of salt.
(ii) Many women even went to jail.
(iii) In urban areas women came from high caste families.
(iv) In rural areas women who participated belonged to rich peasant households.
(v) Women were moved by Gandhi’s call to see the service to the nation as a sacred duty of women. So they responded by giving their whole hearted participation.
(vi) Though for a long-time Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the party.
Question. Write a short note on the Rowlatt Act. How did Indians act in response to it and what were its consequences?
Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. (i) The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 by the British government despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave enormous powers to the government.
(iii) Now, the British government could suppress the political activities, and allow detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
Indian people reacted to it stoutly. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, they decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(i) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(ii) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(iii) Shops closed down.
To suppress the nationalists the British administration
(i) Put the local leaders in jail.
(ii) Debarred Mahatma Gandhi from entering Delhi.
(iii) On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.
(iv) On 13 April, the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
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