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[A]. 1 MARK QUESTIONS:-
Que.No.1. What is the percentage of the earth water exists as oceans and seas?
Ans:- 96.5% of the earth water exists as oceans and seas.
Que.No 2. What is the percentage of fresh water?
Que.No 3. What percentage of the global precipitation received by India?
Ans:- 4% of the global precipitation is received by India.
Que.No 4. What is the rank of India in terms of water avaibility?
Ans:- 133 rank
Que.No 5. Annual precipitation in India as a whole.
Ans:- 114 cm.
Que.No 6. Water stress occurs when ?
Ans:- When water avaibility is between 1000-1600 cubic metre per person per year.
Que.No 7. Why Punjab and Haryana suffer from water scarcity?
Ans:- Because of over utilisation of water for agriculture.
Que.No 8. What percentage of electricity produced by hydroelectric power?
Ans:-22% of electricity produced by hydroelectric power.
Que.No 9. Who proclaimed multipurpose river project consider as the Temple of modern India'?
Ans:-Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed multipurpose river project.
Que.No 10. Who built the tank Hauz Khas,Delhi?
[B]3 MARKS QUESTIONS:-
Que.No 1. Mention disadvantages of Multipurpose River Valley Project?
Ans:- Disadvantages of MPRVP:-
(ii)Regulating and damming of rivers affect rivers' natural flow.
(iii)It also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate.
Que.No 2. Why is the need for water increasing day by day?
Ans:- The need for water is increasing day by day because:-
(ii)Large demands of water for rapidly growing population.
(iii)Water resources are being over exploited.
Que.No 3. Why do we conserve water?
Ans:- We conserve water because:-
(i)Protect natural ecosystem.
(ii)Protect ourselves from natural hazards
(iii)Ensure food security.
Que.No 4. Explain any three reasons for water scarcity in India.
Ans:- (i) Intensive industrialisation and urbanisation after independence
(ii) The water is getting polluted by domestic and industrial wastage.
(iii) Population exploitation led to decrease of ground water level .
Que.No 5. Name three multipurpose river valley projects or dams in India.
Ans:- (i)Sardar Sarovar Dam. (ii)Rihand Dam and (iii)Tungabhadra Dam.
Que.No 6. Describe any three hydraulic structures of ancient India.
Ans:- Three examples of hydraulic structure of ancient India:-
(i)Water harvesting system was built in the 1st century BC near Allahabad.
(ii)During the time of Chandra Gupta Maurya dams ,lakes, and irrigation systems were costructed.
Que.No 7. Mention three major sources of irrigation in India.Which source of irrigation is more popular in Southern India? Why?
Ans:- Three major sources of irrigation in India are:- (i)Canals (ii)Tube Wells and (iii)Tanks.
Tank irrigation is most popular in Southern India,because these states mostly come under Deccan Plateau which is not suitable for irrigation by canals.
[C]. 5 MARKS QUESTIONS:-
Que.No 1. Write the advantages and disadvantages of dams.
Ans:- Dams have the following Advantages:
(iii)Generation of hydroelectricity
(iv)Cultures of aquatics.
(i) Create artificial flood.
(ii)Loss of natural habitat of acquatics.
(iii)Sedimentation of the reserviors.
(iv)Problem of rehabilitation of people near by river.
Que.No 2. Explain the traditional rain water harvasting practised in India.
Ans:- (i)Kuls or Guls in Western Himalayans
(ii)Khadins and Johads in Rajasthan.
(iii)Tank or tankas in the arid and semi-arid regions of Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer.
(iv)Palar Pani -first spell of monsoon is harvested.
(v)Bamboo Drip Irrigation in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
Que.No 3. What is water stress? Give examples of inter-state water disputes.
Ans;- Water stress refers to non-availability of water for the people as per demand.
Examples of inter-state dispute:-
(i)Krishna-Godavari water disputes between Karnataka and AndhraPradesh.
(ii)Kaveri water dispute between Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
(iii)Narmada river water dispute among Gujrat,Madhya Pradesh,Rajasthan and Maharashtra. (iv)Ravi-Beas water disputes between Punjab and Haryana.
Que.No 4. What is a dam?Classify dams.
Ans:- Dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow ,often creating a reservior ,lake or impoundment.
Classification of Dams:-
(i)On the basis of structure and material used :- Timber Dam, Embarkment Dam and Masonry Dam.
(ii)On the basis of height:- Major Dam , Medium Dam and Low dam.
(iii)Barrages are built for supply of water to agriculture fields or township near by.
Que.No 5. Explain the modern method of rainwater harvesting?Name the state which has made it compulsory.
Ans:- Rooftop water harvesting is the modern method adopted to harvest rainwater.The followings are the steps:-
(i) Rooftop rainwater is collected using a PVC pipes.
(ii) Filtered using sand and bricks.
(iii) Underground pipe takes water to sump for immediate usage.
(iv) Excess water from the sump is taken to the well.
(v) Water from the well recharges the underground.
(vi) Take water from the well (later).
Tamilnadu has made rooftop water harvesting compulsory in buildings.