CBSE Class 8 Social Science Where When and How Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Where When and How Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

WHERE, WHEN AND HOW

HISTORY
History is the story of the people who lived in the past. The events that happened in the past ten thousand years ago; are part of our History.

Why we study history ?
History tell us about how people lived in the past, what they ate and wore, what they discoverd and invented, what they painted and built, which gods they worshipped, how they overcome their big and small problem, and many more things. Why people fought or co-operated; composed music or built forts.
Historians have divided the past into two periods :-

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* Prehistory is that period of human development when human being did not know how to read and write. So they did not leave behind any written records for us to learn about them.
* History is the period for which written records are available. It is the period after which writing was invented.

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Archaeological sources :- As human did not know how to write in the prehistoric period, so we depend totally on objects and materials they have left behind to understand their life for eg.–pots, pans, toy, beads, wore jewellery, monuments, inscriptions, coins etc.
Archaeology :- The science of exploring and excavating old ruins and studying them iscalled archaelogy.
Monuments :- Archaeologists also study monuments that are buried but are still standing. Any building that is of historical significance is considered to be monument. For eg. Taj Mahal, Red fort etc.
Inscriptions :- Written records engraved on pillars, walls of temples, cavex forts, palaces and on clay or copper tables are called inscriptions. The Allahabad pillar inscription present at description of the conquest of Samudragupta .
Literary or written records :- Humans learnt to write only about 5,000 years ago. They invented alphabets and put them together to form words and sentences. In the beginning they wrote on stone walls, palm leaves and the bark of trees.
Manuscripts :- When paper was invented they began to use paper for writing. These are called manuscripts. Manuscripts are formed in many languages and are preserved in libraries and museums.

Epics :- Ramayana and Mahabharata are epics which was written over a long period of time.
Accounts of foreign travellers :- Many writers scholars and traders travelled to India from ancient times and wrote about the lifestyles, customs and traditions.
*Megasthenes lived in India for some time as a Greek ambassador at the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote a book known as Indica.
* Two Chinese travellers Fahien and Hiuen Tsang came to India to study Buddhism and wrote about that period.

Do you Know
* The word history cames from the Greek word 'historia' which means finding out.
* Prehistory is almost 9,50,900 years old.
Religious Literature :-
Hindu Literature
*Four Vedas – Rigvedas, Samvedas, Yajurveda and Artharveda, Brahman, Aranyaka and Upanishad.
* Puranas are the most important religious works of Hindu.
*The holy books Vedas give us an idea of the political social and religious life of the Indians of that age.
* The Harshacharita by Bane Bhatt, which is an account on the life of King Harsha (AD 606–47)
* The Sangam literature gives an insight into the social, economic and political life of the people of deltaic TamilNadu in the early Christian centuries.

Buddhist Literature
*Buddhist religious literature is also an important source of knowledge for ancient Indian history. The literature consists of :-
(i) Pitak (ii) Nikay (iii) Jatak.

Secular
* There are many literary master pieces which help in tracing the history of Mauryan age.
Kautilya 'Artha Shastra' has unique position as source material for Mauryan History.
* The first historical writing by an Indian is attributed to Kalhana who wrote the Rajatarangini in the twelfth century.

NOMENCLATURE

Bharatvarsh – Land of Bharat
Jambu-Dvipa – Buddhist Evidence from III century.
Hindustan – Persian (Iranian) origin – This word is of
Indu-Iranian Hybrid
India – Greeks pronounced the Sindhu River as Indus.
India is derived from it.
Aryavarta – This name was given by Aryan.
Constitution – India or Bharat

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