CBSE Class 8 Social Science The National Movement Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Though the elements of nationalism were known to Indians, yet it practically developed in the British period. There were many reasons for it. The British ruled over India in their self-interest. Gradually Indians realized their motives. They were fed up and were oppressed by alien rule. Their attempt to interfere in religion and social practices such as adoption infuriated the Indians and their anger resulted in the armed revolt of 1857. The British crushed the revolt but they could not crush the spirit of nationalism among Indians.
EARLY POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
Bengal British India Society - It was established in 1843 under the chairmanship of George Thompson. Its members were liberal Zamindars who aimed at giving concessions to Indian peasants.
British Indian Society - In 1838, the Zamindar Sabha and British India Society merged and in 1851 British India Society was established for demanding the representation of Indians in administration.
Madras Native Association - It was founded in 1852. It opposed the revolt of 1857. It lacked public support therefore could not last long.
Bombay Association - It was established in 1852 to promote the Indians on high posts and to agitate for the Civil Services Examination to be held in India.
Poona Sarvajanik Sabha - It was established in 1870 with a view to promote understanding the government and the people.
Indian League - It was established in 1875 to educate people in nationalism. Its Chairman Shishir Kumar Ghose desired to provide political education to Indians.
Surendra Nath Banerjee established it in 1876. It worked on national level. When the British reduced the age for appearing in administrative services to 19 from 21, the Indian Association started a big countrywide agitation against it. It also agitated against the Vernacular Press Act.
* Rashtrya Sabha - It was organized at Calcutta in 1883 by nationalist Indians.
* The second half of the 19th century witnessed the full growth of an organised National Movement in India.
INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (I.N.C. 1885)
*The Indian National Union was formed by A.O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant, in association with various national leaders who called for a conference in Pune in December 1885.
*The conference received the unanimous support of all Indian leaders, but the venue was shifted to Bombay for various reasons (esp. outbreak of cholera at Pune).
* Further, the leaders decided to rename the Indian National Union as Indian National Congress .
* The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay under the presidentship of W.C. Benerjee, a veteran lawyer of Calcutta.
* It was attended by 72 delegates from all over India.
* From 1885 onwards the INC met every year and its cause spread rapidly among middle class Indians.
* With the foundation of INC in 1885, the struggle for India's independence was launched in small, hesitant and mild but organized manner.
* The first two decade of INC are described in history as those moderate demands and a sense of confidence in British justice and generosity. Their aim was not to be aggressive for attaining independence.
PHASES OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT
*The history of the Indian Nationalist Movement can be studied under three phases :
*Moderate phase (1885-1905)
* Extremist phase (1905-1919)
*Gandhian phase (1919-1947)
MODERATE PHASE (1885-1905) )
*Moderate Leaders: Dada Bhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tayebji, M.G. Ranade, W.C. Bannerji, Ferozshah Mehta, Surendra Nath Bannerji, C. Shankaran Naiyar, Madan Mohan Malviya, V.S. Shrinivas Shastri, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Anand Mohan Bose, E. Dineshwacha, Ras Bihari Ghosh, Mohan Lal Ghosh, P. Anand Charlu, C.Y. Chintamani, R.C. Dutt, S.Subrahmanyam Aiyer, K.T. Tailang, Madhusudan Das, Rahimtulla M. Sayani. These are also known as Liberals.
Principles and Achievements :
* The moderates used the methods of constitutional agitation for demanding reforms.
* They presented their demands to the British government through petitions, prayers, protests, meetings, speeches and resolutions.
*They targeted only educated masses for the political activities .
*They succeeded in creating a wide national awakening among the people and training them in the art of political work.
*They popularised the ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism and nationalism among the people of India.
* They exposed the exploitative character and the evil results of British policies.
* The drain theory popularized by Dada Bhai Naoroji (pioneer of drain theory), Datt, Wacha and others was an open indictment of Britain's economic role in India.
*Their main achievement was the appointment of a Public Service Commission in 1886, which caused disappointment and the enactment of the Indian Councils Act 1892 which did not modify the basic Constitution
* They succeeded to start the simultaneous examination for the ICS in London and India and appointment of the Welby Commission on Indian expenditure (1895).
*The moderates however failed because they could not realise the importance of mass struggle. They also could not realise the true nature of the British for a considerable time.
*Inspite of their many failures moderates laid strong foundations for the National Movement to grow upon and that they deserve a high place among the makers of modern India.
*Hence there was a strong demand for more vigorous political action and methods than petitions and speeches. Thus the moderate phase was soon over shadowed by militant nationalism.
EXTREMIST PHASE (1905-1919) )
* Extremists advocated the adoption of Swaraj as the goal of the Congress to be achieved by more selfreliant and independent methods. These are also known as Radicals using the militant ways.
Prominent Extremist leaders :
*Bal Gangadhar Tilak : 'Lokmanya' Tilak was the uncompromising leader. He was influenced by Agarkar, Ranade & Naoroji. He launched two newspapers Kesari (in Marathi) & the Maratha (in English). He started Home Rule League in 1916. He wrote Gita Rahasya. Tilak asserted: 'Swaraj is my Birth Right and I will have it'.
* Lala lajpat Rai : Extremist from Punjab. Under the influence of Arya Samaj founded National School at Lahore, in 1920. Boycotted Simon Commission.
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