CBSE Class 8 Social Science The Making of the National Movement Notes

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Revision Notes for Class 8 Social Science The National Movement

Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for The National Movement in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

The National Movement Notes Class 8 Social Science

CBSE Class 8 Social Science The National Movement Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



Though the elements of nationalism were known to Indians, yet it practically developed in the British period. There were many reasons for it. The British ruled over India in their self-interest. Gradually Indians realized their motives. They were fed up and were oppressed by alien rule. Their attempt to interfere in religion and social practices such as adoption infuriated the Indians and their anger resulted in the armed revolt of 1857. The British crushed the revolt but they could not crush the spirit of nationalism among Indians.


Bengal British India Society - It was established in 1843 under the chairmanship of George Thompson. Its members were liberal Zamindars who aimed at giving concessions to Indian peasants.

British Indian Society - In 1838, the Zamindar Sabha and British India Society merged and in 1851 British India Society was established for demanding the representation of Indians in administration.

Madras Native Association - It was founded in 1852. It opposed the revolt of 1857. It lacked public support therefore could not last long.

Bombay Association - It was established in 1852 to promote the Indians on high posts and to agitate for the Civil Services Examination to be held in India.

Poona Sarvajanik Sabha - It was established in 1870 with a view to promote understanding the government and the people.

Indian League - It was established in 1875 to educate people in nationalism. Its Chairman Shishir Kumar Ghose desired to provide political education to Indians.

Indian Association:

Surendra Nath Banerjee established it in 1876. It worked on national level. When the British reduced the age for appearing in administrative services to 19 from 21, the Indian Association started a big countrywide agitation against it. It also agitated against the Vernacular Press Act.

* Rashtrya Sabha - It was organized at Calcutta in 1883 by nationalist Indians.

* The second half of the 19th century witnessed the full growth of an organised National Movement in India.


*The Indian National Union was formed by A.O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant, in association with various national leaders who called for a conference in Pune in December 1885.

*The conference received the unanimous support of all Indian leaders, but the venue was shifted to Bombay for various reasons (esp. outbreak of cholera at Pune).

* Further, the leaders decided to rename the Indian National Union as Indian National Congress .

* The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay under the presidentship of W.C. Benerjee, a veteran lawyer of Calcutta.

* It was attended by 72 delegates from all over India.

* From 1885 onwards the INC met every year and its cause spread rapidly among middle class Indians.

* With the foundation of INC in 1885, the struggle for India's independence was launched in small, hesitant and mild but organized manner.

* The first two decade of INC are described in history as those moderate demands and a sense of confidence in British justice and generosity. Their aim was not to be aggressive for attaining independence.


*The history of the Indian Nationalist Movement can be studied under three phases :

*Moderate phase (1885-1905)

* Extremist phase (1905-1919)

*Gandhian phase (1919-1947)

MODERATE PHASE (1885-1905) )

*Moderate Leaders: Dada Bhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tayebji, M.G. Ranade, W.C. Bannerji, Ferozshah Mehta, Surendra Nath Bannerji, C. Shankaran Naiyar, Madan Mohan Malviya, V.S. Shrinivas Shastri, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Anand Mohan Bose, E. Dineshwacha, Ras Bihari Ghosh, Mohan Lal Ghosh, P. Anand Charlu, C.Y. Chintamani, R.C. Dutt, S.Subrahmanyam Aiyer, K.T. Tailang, Madhusudan Das, Rahimtulla M. Sayani. These are also known as Liberals.

Principles and Achievements :

* The moderates used the methods of constitutional agitation for demanding reforms.

* They presented their demands to the British government through petitions, prayers, protests, meetings, speeches and resolutions.

*They targeted only educated masses for the political activities .

*They succeeded in creating a wide national awakening among the people and training them in the art of political work.

*They popularised the ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism and nationalism among the people of India.

* They exposed the exploitative character and the evil results of British policies.

* The drain theory popularized by Dada Bhai Naoroji (pioneer of drain theory), Datt, Wacha and others was an open indictment of Britain's economic role in India.

*Their main achievement was the appointment of a Public Service Commission in 1886, which caused disappointment and the enactment of the Indian Councils Act 1892 which did not modify the basic Constitution

* They succeeded to start the simultaneous examination for the ICS in London and India and appointment of the Welby Commission on Indian expenditure (1895).

*The moderates however failed because they could not realise the importance of mass struggle. They also could not realise the true nature of the British for a considerable time.

*Inspite of their many failures moderates laid strong foundations for the National Movement to grow upon and that they deserve a high place among the makers of modern India.

*Hence there was a strong demand for more vigorous political action and methods than petitions and speeches. Thus the moderate phase was soon over shadowed by militant nationalism.

EXTREMIST PHASE (1905-1919) )

* Extremists advocated the adoption of Swaraj as the goal of the Congress to be achieved by more selfreliant and independent methods. These are also known as Radicals using the militant ways.

Prominent Extremist leaders :

*Bal Gangadhar Tilak : 'Lokmanya' Tilak was the uncompromising leader. He was influenced by Agarkar, Ranade & Naoroji. He launched two newspapers Kesari (in Marathi) & the Maratha (in English). He started Home Rule League in 1916. He wrote Gita Rahasya. Tilak asserted: 'Swaraj is my Birth Right and I will have it'.

* Lala lajpat Rai : Extremist from Punjab. Under the influence of Arya Samaj founded National School at Lahore, in 1920. Boycotted Simon Commission.

* Bipin Chandra Pal : Discarded orthodox Hinduism and entered Brahmo Samaj. He visited England and America. He founded English weekly New India. This trio is know as Lal Bal Pal in History.

* Sri Aurobindo Ghosh : He Passed ICS exam with record marks in Greek & Latin. He started Bengali daily 'Jugantar'.

* Other Extremist leaders : Chakravarthi, Raghvachariar, Aswini Kumar Datta, Raj Narayan Bose, T. Prakasham, Pillai etc.

Partition of Bengal (1905) :

* In Bengal the nationalist feelings and anti British movement had gain much ground at the beginning of twentieth century. To crush it Lord Curzon played the communal card and following the policy of 'Divide and Rule' he partitioned Bengal on communal basis.

* It was widely opposed and all classes came together to hold demonstrations. The resolutions of the Congress spoke against it.

* Surendra Nath Banerjee travelled throughout India and spread the feeling of nationalism.

* The British failed to crush it and in 1911 Bengal was reunited by the government.

Swadeshi & Boycott Movement (1905 - 1908) :

* Swadeshimovement was started and boycott of foreign goods were conducted.

* Meetings were organised, processions were taken out, Bande Mataram was sung, foreign-cloths were burnt and use of Swadeshi was encouraged. Gopal Krishna Gokhale went to London to get the partition of Bengal cancelled.


* The English Officials thought that the policy of divide and rule was the best for them.

* Sir Saiyyad Ahmed Khan taught the Muslims to cooperate with the British and keep away from the congress as it would serve their interest best.

* The British government encouraged this attitude and Lord Minto patronised them by managing Shimla deputation gave birth to Muslim league led by Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dacca and the Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk .

* On 30 December, 1906 Nawab Bakawal Mulq chaired the first Session ofthe League and formally established Muslim League with the objectives :

To make the Muslims, to support the English rule.

To protect the interest of Muslims and their rights.

Since the beginning, it adopted a communal pose.

Surat Session·(1907) :

* When the government did not pay any attention to dismiss the partition of Bengal as appealed by Gokhale, the militant nationalism grew in the Congress.

* In 1907 in the Surat Session the differences between the Liberals and Radical Nationalists grew more vocal and the Congress was divided.

* The English attempted to win over the liberals. In this session Hindu-Muslim split also took place.

The Seditious Committee Act 1907 :

With the Morley Minto Reforms, the militant nationalist were very much discontented and the revolutionary activities became more usual than before. The British Government legislated the Seditious Committee Act and imprisoned Lala Lajpat Rai and other revolutionaries under it.

Morley - Minto Reforms (1909) :

* Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909 during the period when Lord Minto was the Viceroy of India.

* The reforms envisaged a separate electorate for the Muslims besides other constitutional measures. The government thereby sought to create a rift within the Congress on the one hand by winning the support of themoderates, and on the other, to win favour of Muslims against Hindu.

* To achieve the latter objective, the reforms introduced the system of separate electorates under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates.

* This was done to encourage the notion, that the political, economic and cultural interest of Hindus & Muslims were separate and not common.

* Indian political leaders were however dissatisfied by these reforms.

Delhi Durbar (1911) :

Lord Hardinge organized a splendid Durbar at Delhi and invited George V and his Queen. He also announced the cancellation of Bengal Partition. The Capital of India was transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. Bengal was made a province. Bihar and Orissa too were made provinces.

Growth of revolutionary Terrorism :

* The shift from extremism and militant nationalism to revolutionary terrorism was a logical one. Younger generation freedom fighters were frustrated at continuing government repression, and found expression in a series of terrorist acts aimed at ousting the British government.

* A radical press had been operating in Bengal since the Swadeshi days.

The Sandhya of Brahmabandabh Upadhyay, the Yugantar of Bhupendranath Datta, the Bande Mataram of Aurobindo Ghosh, were being published.

* Secret societies were also being formed. The first revolutionary groups had been started round about 1902 at Midnapur (by Jnanendranath Basu) and Calcutta (the Anushilan Samiti, founded by Pramatho Mitra, Jatindranath Banerjee and Barinda Kumar Ghosh).

* A bomb factory was set up in Manicktala, a Calcutta suburb. But it was soon detected and the whole group was arrested in 1908.

* In December 1907 an attempt was made on the life of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, and in April 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose made an aborative attempt on the life of Kingsford, an unpopular judge, at Muzaffarpur. Prafulla Chaki committed suicide while Khudiram was caught, tried and hanged.

International Events

In 1912-13, the Indian Muslims were infuriated due to anti-Turkish policies of the British specially in the Balkan wars. They felt that the English were not the well wishers of Indian Muslims.

Organization of Ghadar Party (1913) :

* The revolutionary movement had taken strong roots in Bengal, Maharashtra and some other parts of India at the beginning of the twentieth century.

* BarindraNath, Bhupendra Nath and Savarkar were among the leading revolutionaries.

* The Indian revolutionaries were also active outside India.

* On 1st November 1913 in the city of San Francisco, U.S.A., the revolutionary leader Lala Hardayal founded the Ghadar Party with the Co-operation of Barkatulla and Ram Chandra.

* Its branches were opened in other countries. Ras Bihari Bose, Mahendra Pratap, Abdul Rahman, Madame Cama etc. were its prominent members. During the first world war, Lala Hardayal went to Germany and organized the Committee of, Indian Freedom in Berlin.

The Ghadar Movement :

* Ramnath Puri issued a Circular-a-Azadi in America in favour of Swadeshi Movement.

* Pre-Ghadar revolutionary activities had been carried on by G.D. Kumar, Taraknath Das, Sohan Singh Bhakna, Virendranath Chattopadhyaya and Lala Hardayal who reached USA and Canada in 1911.

* G. D. Kumar established a Swadesh Sevak Home at Vancouver.

* Finally, Lala Hardayal established a Hindi Association at Portland in 1913. The publication of a weekly newspaper 'The Ghadar', was started from its headquarters at San Francisco.

* Thus, the Ghadar Party was a revolutionary group organised around the Newspaper 'The Ghadar'.

* The plans of the Ghadar were encouraged by two events in 1914 - the Komagata Maru incident and the outbreak of the First World War.

Lucknow Pact (1916) :

* An important step forward in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity was the Lucknow Pact (1916).

* Anti-British feelings were generated among the Muslims following a war between Britain and Turkey which opened way for Congress and Muslim League unity.

* Both the Congress and the 'Muslim League held session at Lucknow in 1916 and concluded the famous Lucknow Pact.

* The congress accepted the separate electorate for Muslims and both organisations jointly demanded 'dominion status' for the country.

* Hindu-Muslim unity weakened the British attitude and forced the govemment to announce its future policy.

* In 1917, a British policy was announced whereby association of Indians in every branch of administration was increased and there was to be a gradual development of local self-goveming institutions.

* The difference between Liberal and Radicals were also harmonised in this session.

Home Rule Movement (1915 -16) :

* B.G. Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League at Pune on 28 April, 1916.

* Annie Besant, inspired by the Irish rebellion, started Home Rule Movement in India in September, 1916.

* The movement spread rapidly and branches of the Home Rule League were established all over India. B.G. Tilak wholeheartedly supported this movement. He joined forces with Annie Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this program.

Government of India Act (1919) :

On the basis of the August 20, 1917 declaration of the Secretary of State Mr. Montague, the Montague Chelmsford Report was prepared to implement it. On the basis of this report the Government of India Act of 1919 was legislated. It established Dual System of administration known as dyrachy, in the provinces. It tended to bring partial responsible government.

GANDHIAN PHASE (1919 -1947)

Emergence of Gandhi - Gandhiji was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar. He went for the education of Law (Baristary) at England. He went in 1893 to South Africa. He Struggled for 21 years on the basis of Non-Violence and Satyagrah for the cause of Racial discrimination. In 1915 he came to India. In 1916 he founded Sabarmati Ashram at Gujrat.

Aims of movement :

* Non violence, Satyagrah and peaceful demonstration.
* Abolition of untouchability.
* Hindu Muslim unity.
* To promote small and indigenous industries.
Emphasis on Swaraj, self administration, Self respect and self language. Popularization of Charkha and Khadi as a symbol of self employment and Self respect.
* Boycotting foreign goods and drinks.
* Boycotting of courts, school and colleges of Britishers.

Champaran -1916
* For the sake of indigo planters. He led the successful movement. It Raised the wages of peasants as well as the price of indigo.
* Peasants' Movement Khera 1917 : Removal of Revenue tax owing to the harm to crops in Khera Village of Gujrat.

Mill workers - Ahmedabad 1918 :

* Low rate of wage and bonded labour were the main cause of agitation. The mill owners had to raise the wage at Ahmedabad mill.
In the beginning Gandhiji had confidence in Britishers policy but the Jallian Wala Bagh massacre of 1919 and Rowalt Act 1919 shocked him.

Rowlatt Act & Satyagraha :

* In 1919, Sedition Committee headed by Justice Rowlatt, passed the Rowlatt Act on 18 March, 1919, whereby war time restrictions of civil rights were to be made permanent by :
(i) System of special courts.
(ii) Detention without trial for 2 years maximum.
(iii) Greater police powers.

* This Act authorised the government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a Court of Law. It also enabled the government to suspend the Right of Habeas Corpus which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.

* To disobey this Act Gandhiji founded the Satyagraha Sabha, whose members took a pledge to boycott and noncooperate with the government. It was first countrywide agitation by Gandhiji and laid the foundation of Non- Cooperation Movement.

* During March - April 1919, the country witnessed a remarkable political awakening. There were hartals,strikes, processions and demonstrations.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919) :

* A large crowd had gathered on 13 April 1919 (Baisakhi Day) at Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh, to protest against the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.

* General Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar, ordered for the infamous massacre.

* The Hunter Commission's Report on the Punjab disturbances was described by Gandhi as a white wash.

* In protest Rabindranath Tagore and Gandhiji returned the title of 'Sir' and Kesar-e-Hind respectively.

Khilafat Movement (1920 -1922) :

* The Indian Muslims were extremely agitated over the, Pan-Islamic Khilafat issue which originated as a result of Turkey's entry into the first world war as an ally of Germany against Britain.
* A new stream came into the nationalist movement with the Khilafat movement. With the defeat of Turkey and the spread of rumors about very harsh treatment being meted out to the Khalifa, the Indian Muslims were getting restive. The anger was all the more as this harsh treatment was in vi~ation of an earlier pledge by the Allies not to harm Turkey's sovereignty.
* The All India Khilafat Conference held at Delhi in November 1919 in the leadership of Ali Brothers Muhammad-

Ali and Shaukat-Ali.
* Gandhiji was the head of Khilafat Committee.
* Maulana Abul Kalam Azad also led the movement.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1929 - 22) :

* The Non-Cooperation movement which was the first mass movement under the leadersbip of Mahatma Gandhi was launched for three main demands :
(i) The Khilafat issue, (ii) The redressal of the Punjab wrongs and (iii) The attainment of Swaraj.

* The movement began with massive student strikes in Calcutta and Lahore. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru gave up their legal practice and Subhas Chandra Bose resigned from the Covenanted Civil Service.

* The Tilak Swarajya Fund was started in April 1921 (Vijayawada session of the AICC).

* Boycott of foreign cloth became a mass phenomenon. Khadi soon became the symbol of freedom and 20 lakh charkhas were set up by June.

Event of Chauri-Chaura :

* On 5 February 1922 in the Chauri Chaura village of Gorakhpur in U.P., when Congress was organizing a procession, police interfered. A clash between police and people began. The people encircled the policestation and then it was burnt by the angry crowd. One Inspector and 21 soldiers died on the spot. Gandhiji was shocked because he declared that it would be movement based on Truth and Non-violence.

* On 12 February the Executive of Congress met at Bardoli and suspended the non-cooperation movement.Gandhiji was imprisoned for 6 years but due to his illness he was released before the due date.

* The Non-cooperation movement will always be remembered for its mass-character and for display of unprecedented Hindu-Muslim unity. It ushered the era of Non-violent movements under Gandhian leadership. It helped Indians to shed their inferiority complex and boldly challenge the British imperialism.

Some Revolutionary Movements (1920 -1940) :

1920 : Hindustan Republic Association led by Jogesh Chatterji and Sachin Sanyal.

1925 : Kakori Conspiracy case Ram Prasad Bismil. Aswak Ullah Khan, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Lahiri were the leaders and were hanged. Treasury at Kakori station from train going to Lucknow from Hardoi was looted.

1928 : Hindustan Socialist Republic Army Hindustan Republic association was recognized as Hindustan Socialist Republic Army.Bhagat Singh the member of this association killed Sanderson because he tried to shoot Lala Laj Pat Rai

1929 : Batukeshwar and Bhagat Singh bombed in assembly and just to show protest they stood there only. They also raised the slogan 'Inquilab Zindabad', As a sequel to the dropping of the bomb, the police discovered a bomb factory at Lahore and another at Saharanpur and instituted the Lahore conspiracy case against Singh and Dutt.

1930 : Indian Republican Army
(i) Attack on police armoury by Surya Sen at Chittagong.
(ii) Killing of English officer in Punjab by Harkishan.
(iii) Dinesh Gupta and Badal Killed the I.G. of police.
(iv) Preeti Lata and Kalpna Dutt - These two girls were also involved in revolutionary activities.
(v) Suniti Chaudhry and Shanti Ghosh the school girls killed the ~agistrate Steven of Tripura.

1930 : Binoy Bose, Badal Gupta and Dinesh Gupta raided the Writers building in Calcutta and shot dead some English Officers. They were punished for death sentence.

1930 : Suraj Sen and Tarkeshwar Dastidar - A raid was carried o,ut on the armouries at Chittagong. They were penalised by death sentence.

1931 : Death sentence to - Bhagat Singh, Raj guru, Sukhdev.

1940 : On 13 March 1940 Sardar Udham Singh murdered general Dyer in London. At last the revolutionaries thought of their violent act and turned to socialism. Revolution of Russia of 1905 and 1917 changed the thinking.

The Swaraj Party (1923) :

* Major developments in Indian politics occurred during 1922-28. The sudden termination of the Noncooperation Movement and Gandhi's imprisonment (in 1922) led to demoralisation in the Congress ranks. Serious differences rose among the leaders regarding the course of action to be undertaken.

* The orthodox followers of Gandhi, such as Rajendra Prasad and Rajagopalachari, who came to be known as 'nochangers' adhered to the Gandhian program of boycott of legislatures.

* Others led by Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das, who came to be known as 'pro-changers' decided to wreck the legislatures by opposing the Goyernment from within.

* The 'pro-changers' formed the Swarajya Party on 31st December, 1922, contested the elections and embarrassed the government by opposing its measures.

Program of Swaraj Party :

The policy of obstruction of the Swaraj Party was directed to trouble the government and set them right.
The Swarajist tactical line was -
To discuss and condemn the Budget.
To protest against repressive laws.
To support the creative activities.
To strengthen the national power.
Leave the post if circumstances warranted so.
In 1924 when Gandhi came out of jail, he supported the program of Swaraj party. Swaraj party succeeded to  some extent. When C. R. Das died in 1925, differences grew in the party and it did not succeed well in the elections of 1926 and it fizzled out.


Simon Commission And Its Boycott (1927) :

* In November 1927, the British Government appointed an all white, (Englishmen) India Statutory Commission, known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon).

* The Commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further Constitutional Reforms and on what lines.

* At its Madras session in 1927, presided over by Dr. Ansari, the National Congress decided to boycott the Commission at every stage and in every form.

* The Muslim League, the Hindu Mahasabha and all the Political groups (except the Justice Party in Madras and the Punjab Unionists) decided to boycott the Commission.

Reasons of Boycott of Simon Commission :

* All the members of the commission were Englishmen.

* Constitutional Reforms were due only in 1929, but the Britain's Conservative Secretary of State, Lord Brikenhead appointed the Simon Commission, before the due date. Indians were not prepared for that.

* Brikenhead, had constantly talked of the inability of Indians to formulate a concrete scheme of Constitutional Reforms.

* It was seen as a violation of the Principle of self determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.

Nehru Report (1928) :

* At this stage Lord Birkendhead, the Secretary of State of India, asked the Indians to prepare a constitution acceptable to all parties.

* All important Indian leaders and parties held the conference in February 1928, to meet the challenge of the Simon Commission and appointed a subcommittee under the chairmanship of MotHal Nehru to draft a Constitution

* The report was finalised by August 1928, and called Nehru Report.

* It was drafted mainly by Moti Lal Nehru and Tej Bahadur Sapru.

* Nehru Report recommended Dominion Status on lines of self-governing dominions as the form of government desired by Indians.

* It rejected separate communal electorates. It proposed reservation for the Muslims at the center and in Provinces in which they were in minority.

* The Report recommended equal rights for women, freedom to form unions, and dissociation of the state from religion in any form.

Bardoli Satyagrah:
When the Zamindars of Bardoli oppressed the peasants and overtaxed them they were organized by the Ironman Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel for Satyagraha in 1928.

Lahore Session and Pooran Swaraj (Dec.1929) :

* Irwin talks broke down on the issue of Dominion Status and framing of new constitution. He could not give any firm assurance.
* Jawaharlal Nehru replaced Motilal Nehru as the Indian National Congress President at Lahore and the major decisions taken at Lahore Session were :
(i) Round Table Conference to be boycotted.
(ii) Poorna Swaraj or complete independence as the main aim of Congress.
(iii) Launched a Program of Civil Diso.bedience including non-payment of taxes.
(iv) On December 31,1929 the Tricolour was hoisted on the bank of Ravi.
(v) January 26th, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day to be celebrated at every place.

The Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) :

* The refusal of the British government to accept the Congress plan plunged the nation into country-wide civil disobedience.

* As the 1929 deadline expired, the Congress Working Committee met in January 1930 to implement the Congress resolution of boycott of Councils.

* The movement really began with the 'Dandi March'. The intention was a salt satyagraha at Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea coast where Gandhi proposed to manufacture salt by violating the law.

* On 12 March 1930, Gandhi, along with 78 of his followers, set out from Ahmedabad to Dandi and broke the law on April 6, 1930.

* The 'salt satyagraha' movement was taken up by C. Rajagopalachari in Tamil Nadu where he led the satyagrahis to Vedaranyam to break the salt Jaw.

* In Malabar, the hero of the Satyagraha, K. Kalappan, broke the salt law at Payannur.

* Gandhi was arrested in 1930 on May 5, before he could make salt at the Government depot at Dharsana.

* There was violation of forest laws" in Maharashtra Karnataka and the Central Provinces, and refusal to pay 'Chaukidari' tax in Eastern India. In many parts of the country people refused to pay land revenue and had their lands confiscated. Women, youth and students played a significant role in the boycott of foreIgn goods and liquor. The liquor boycott brou ht government revenues from excise duties crashing down.

* In the north-west the Pathans under Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan,. popularly known as the 'Frontier Gandhi' orgamsed the society of 'Khudai Khidmatgars' (Servants of God) also known as Red Shirt. They were pledged to non-violence and the freedom struggle.

* The Civil Disobedience Movement differed from the earlier Non-Cooperation Movement (1921-22).

* The policy of Non-Cooperation Movement was affecting the administration of the Government by noncooperation, the Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at paralysing the administration by performance of specific illegal acts.

First Round Table Conference (1930) :

* The First Round Table-Conference summoned in London in 1930, between British and Indians to discuss the Simon Commission Report.

* The National Congress boycotted the Conference.

* Muslim League was represented by Mohammed Ali. Agha Khan, Fazl-ul-Haq and Jinnah.

* Hindu Mahasabha was represented by Moonje.

* Liberals were represented by Sapru, Chintamani and Srinivas Sastri.

* Princes were represented by Akhar Hyari and Mirza Ismail, the Dewans of Hyderabad and Mysore respectively.

Gandhi -Irwin Pact, March 1931 :
* Lord Irwin agreed to release all political prisoners except Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.
* Gandhiji agreed to suspend Civil Disobedience Movement and participation in Second Round Table Conference.

Second Round Table Conference (1931) :

* Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference but the British government refused to concede the basic nationalist demand for freedom on the basis of the immediate grant of Dominion Status .

* This time the separate electorate was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed class, Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians .

* The Second Round Table Conference ended with Ramsay MacDonald's announcement of:

(i) Formation of two new Muslim majority Provinces (North Western Frontier Province and Sind).
(ii) Setting up of an Indian Consultative Committee. (iii) Setting up of three expert committees on Finance, Franchise and States.
(iv) Holding out the prospect of a unilateral British Communal Award, if Indians failed to agree on the minorities issue.

* On Gandhi's arrival in Bombay, the Congress Working Committee decided to resume the Civil Disobedience Movement. In January 1932 Gandhi was arrested and sent to Yeravada Prison.

* The Civil Disobedience movement lingered on till it was withdrawn by Gandhi in April 1934.

The Communal Award and Poona Pact (1932) :

* It was in the midst of the Civil Disobedience movement that Ramsay Macdonald announced his Communal Award on 17 August, 1932, providing separate electorates for Muslim, European and Sikh voters.

* Separate electorates were also provided for the Depressed Classes as a community. It could have break the unity among Hindus.

* Hence Gandhi began a fast unto death at the Yeravada Prison at Poona and was able to secure an agreement between caste Hindus and the backward class leaders, by which the Award was later modified. Thus the unity among the Hindus was saved.

* The Hindu joint electorate was retained with reserved seats for depressed classes who were now given greater representation than before by MacDonald.

* The Poona Pact was considered by many Congressmen as a let-down on the part of Gandhi. Many saw it as an unfortunate shifting of emphasis from the main objective of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

* Harijan upliftment now became the principal concern of Gandhi. An All-India Anti-Untouchability League was started in September 1932, and a weekly Harijan in January 1933.

Third Round Table Conference:

* Third Round Table Conference was scheduled to be held in London (1932). The Congress did not participate in it. The discussion led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.

The Government of India, Act, 1935

* In August 1935, the Government of India Act emerged after a long process which had begun eight years earlier with the appointment of the Simon commission in 1927.

* The Act of 1935 represented a major reorganization of the Constitution of India.

* The Government of India Act 1935, had two main parts, dealing with Federation of India· and Provincial Autonomy.

Some of its main features were :

* It provided for the establishment of Federation of India consisting of Governors Provinces and Princely States.

* Dyarchy was withdrawn from the provinces and implanted at the centre.

* The proposed Federal legislature was to be bicameral with council of states with 250 members and a federal assembly of 375 members.

* Three fold division of subjects was made-federal, provincial and concurrent.

* Provision was made for the establishment of a federal court with original appellate and advisory Jurisdiction .

* The most important thing of the Act was Provincial Autonomy.

* The Act divided the British Indian Provinces into two categories: 11 Governor's- provinces :- Madras, Bombay United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar Central Provinces, Berar, Assam, NWFP, Orissa and Sind and 5 chief commissioners Provinces.

* Property qualifications remained the main basis for enfranchisement.

* This change did not actually come into operation except for the establishment of a Federal Court, a Federal Public Service Commission and a Federal Railway Authority. Finally, the Act remained entirely silent about Dominion Status.

Growth of Socialist Forces:

The 1930s witnessed the rapid growth of socialist ideas within and outside the Congress organisation. The Great Depression of 1929 had exposed the shortcomings of the capitalist system. The Russian Revolution of 1917,and the growth of powerful left wing groups during the 1920s and 1930s in India were also contributory.

Rise and Growth of Communism:

The founder of the Communist movement in India was the Yugantar revolutionary M.N. Roy (his real name was Naren Bhattacharjee). In 1919 he came into contact with the Bolshevik Mikhail Borodin and in 1920 attended the second Congress of the Communist International in Russia. In October 1920, M.N. Roy, Abani Mukherjee and some Khilafat enthusiasts like Mohammad Ali and Mohammad Shafiq founded a Communist Party of India at Tashkent.

States People's Struggle:

* A major development in the 1930s was the spread of national movement to the princely states. People of many of the princely states now began to organise movements for democratic rights and popular governments. Allindia States People's Conference had already been founded in December 1927 to coordinate the political activities in different States.

* Jawaharlal Nehru became the President of the All-India States People's Conference in 1939.

Demand for Pakistan (1940) :

* The Term Pakistan was given by Chaudhary Rehmat AIL Later on Mohmmad Ali Jinnah gave it practicality.

* Iqbal suggested in 1930, The frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh the Federation.

* Proposal of separate Pakistan or Two Nation Theory first passed in Lahore session 1940 by the Muslim League.

August offer (1940) :

* The Viceroy (Linlithgow) put forward a proposal that included:
(i) Dominion Status in the unspecified future.
(ii) A post-war body to enact the Constitution.
(iii) Expansion of Governor-General's Council with representation of the Indians.
(iv) Establishing a War Advisory council. The Cripps Mission (March - April 1942) :

* After the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese, the British decided to send the Cripps Mission to India for constitutional proposals, which included :
(i) Dominion Status to be granted after the war with the right to secede (any province could, if it so desired, remain outside the Indian Union and negotiate directly with Britain).
(ii) Constitution making body to be elected from Provincial Assemblies and Princes' nominees after the War.
(iii) Individual princes could sign a separate agreement with the British which in effect accommodated the Pakistan demand.
(iv) British would however, control the defence for war period.

* The congress did not want to rely upon future promises. It wanted a responsible government with full powers and also a control over the country's defence. Gandhi termed the proposals as a past dated cheque in a crashing bank.

Quit India Movement (1942) :

* In the back-drop of the failure of Cripps Mission, imminent Japanese threat, the British attitude towards Indians who were left behind in ,Burma and the prevailing anger and hostility to an alien and meaningless war. Quit India resolution was passed on 8 August 1942 at Gowalia Tank, Bombay. Gandhi told the British to quit 'India'.His message was 'Do or Die'.


* In March 1942 a conference of Indians was held in Tokyo, and they formed the Indian Independence League. At the Bangkok Conference (June, 1942) Rasbehari Bose was elected President of the League. INA was formed by Mohan Singh in Singapore.
* Subhas Chandra Bose had escaped to Berlin in 1941 and set up there. In Germany he was given the title of 'Netaji. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him
* Subhash Chandra Bose formed the provisional Government and the Indian National Army was reorganised on 21 October 1943. 'Jai Hind' was the main way of greeting of Azad Hind Fauz.
* INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhi, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force. The Captain was L¥mi Swaminathan.
* Subhash Chandra Bose - 'Delhi Chalo' and 'Tum Mujhe Khoon do main Tumhe Azadi Dunga'.
* Main leaders P.K. Sehgal, Shah Nawaz and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial at the Red Fort by British Government.
* Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru and Nehru appeared for the defence and the Muslim League also joined the countrywide protest.

Wavell Plan (1945) :

Mr. Wavell came after Linlithgo. He presented a plan for ending the political problems in India. It is known as Wavel plan. It was assured that all the members in the Executive, except Viceroy and the Commander-inChief, shall be Indian.It was to have equal representation to Hindus and Muslims and this Executive was to act like an interim government.

Simla Conference (1945) :
To discuss the Wavell plan, a Conference was convened at Simla on 25 June, 1945. In this Conference, Ganhdiji, Jinnah, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Tara Singh participated. It began in a cordial atmosphere but due to obstinacy of Jinnah and his communal viewpoint no decision could be taken. Jinnah emphasised that the Muslim League, will be the only representative of the Muslims. Hence all the Muslim members of council be its nominee. The Conference failed due to the lack of mutual agreements.

Cabinet Mission (March - June 1946) :

* Members : Wavell , Petrick Lawrence (Secretary of State), Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander.

* The Mission reasoned that the right of communal selfdetermination, if conceded to Muslims, also had to be granted to non-Muslims who formed majorities in West Bengal and Eastern Punjab, as well as in Assam proper

* The Plan proposed rejection of the demand for a full fledged Pakistan. The other recommendations were :
(i) For the formation of union of all the Indian territories under a centre that would control the defence, the foreign affairs and the communication, leaving all other subjects to the existing Provincial Legislatures.
(ii) Provincial Legislatures would elect a Constituent Assembly. The members would divide up into three sections A, Band C while electing the Constituent Assembly:
Section A: Non Muslim Majority Provinces (Bombay, United Provinces, Bihar, Central Provinces, Orissa, Madras).
Section B : Muslim Majority Provinces in the northwest (Sind, NWFP & Punjab).
Section C : Muslim Majority Provinces in North east (Bengal, Assam).

* The congress decided to join the constituent assembly but not the interim government. But the other disagreement persisted between congress and the league.

* On 29th July 1946 Jinnah withdrew his earlier acceptance of the plan and fixed 16 August 1946 as Direct Action Day. Calcutta, Noakhali, Garmukteshwar were the storm centres.


* The plan declared that power would be handed over by 15 Aug, 1947 on the basis of Dominion status to India and Pakistan.
* Boundary Commission was to be headed by Radcliffe.
* Independence for Bengal and accession of Hyderabad to Pakistan ruled out.
* Mountbatten Plan was to divide India but retain maximum unity.

Direct Action (1946) :

In July 1946, Congress found a glorious victory in the election of the Constituent Assembly. The Muslim League became afraid and it rejected the Cabinet Mission. Jinnah threatened to start Direct Action to have Pakistan.16th August, 1946 was the dividing line for direct action. It was very shocking that on this very sad day only at Calcutta about 7 thousand people were killed. Dangerous Communal riots broke out at Silhat Noakhali, Tripura, Garhmukteshwar, Bihar and other places in which thousands were killed.

Direction of Attlee (1947) :

After Direct Action Day, Communal riots broke out throughout India. The situation became so alarming that Attlee the British Prime Minister announced that the British government would leave India before June 1948 and transfer the power to Indians.


After Lord Wavell, Mountbatten became the Viceroy of India. According to the declaration of Atlee, Mountbatten requested J. L. Nehru and Sardar Patel to accept the demand of Pakistan raised by Jinnah & League. Mountbatten went to England to have consultations on partition and when he came back, he published his plan on 3rd June 1947. It is known as Mountbatten Plan. On insistence from Mountbatten Jinnah accepted the plan. On 15th June 1947 the Congress too under pressure accepted it. In July, this plan was executed by Indian Independence Act, 1947.

Indian Independence Act (1947) :

On 4th July 1947, this Act was placed in the House of Commons. On 18 July 1947, the British Parliament passed this Bill. According to it, two separate nations were created. Lord Mountbatten went to Karachi on 13 August, 1947 and transferred the power to Pakistan.
Jinnah was made the Governor General of the new nation Pakistan. On 14th August midnight India too became a free nation. Lord Mountbatten was made the Governor General of India. Lord Mountbatten retired from his post and C. Raja Gopalachari was appointed the new Governor General. On 26 January 1950, the Indian Constitution was enforced and it is celebrated the Republic day of India.


The Independence Act was passed on 18th July 1947 partitioning India and Pakistan. The English not only exploited India but also sowed the seeds of communalism in the country. The far-reaching effect of the communalism was the division of India into two parts-India and Pakistan. There were several causes responsible for it.

Separatist Tendencies of the Communal Minded Muslisms :
The Muslim leaders laid emphasis on the separate religion and separate life. The teachings of Kabir, Nanak and the Sufis were forgotten.

Backwardness of Muslims :
The Muslims did not pay any attention to education and reforms. They feared modern ideas to interfere with their religion.

Jinnah's Obstinacy :
He propounded the two nation theory and remained obstinate till the end.

Divide and Rule Policy :

British diplomats indulged in the policy of divide and rule. It practically began with Clive, matured with Curzon and other Viceroys acted upon it.

Communal Tension :
The communal conflicts led the Congress to accept partition.

Fear of a Civil War :
In 1946 the clouds of a civil war were hovering over the country. The Partition accorded the civil war.

Helping elements in Indian Freedom Struggle :
(i) The British power deteriorated after the II world war.
(ii) The movements of Asia inspired the Indian patriots.
(iii) The liberal attitude of the Labour Government after 1945 in Britain changed their policy.
(iv) International pressure on Britain to make India free.
(v) The Nationalist Revolutionary movements of India.
(vi) Fear of communism in Great Britain.
(vii) The dissatisfaction among the Indian army and armed forces.
(viii) Acceptance of Mountbatten Plan by Congress and by League both.

Obstruction Policy of League :
They obstructed all good acts of the Indian National Congress.

Appeasement Policy of Congress :
Because of the Lucknow Pact and Communal Award, the Muslims felt assured that Congress would accept their separatist demands.


Question. Which agreement was held between Congress and Muslim League ?
(A) Lahore agreement
(B) Nashik agreement
(C) Lukhnow agreement
(D) None of these

Answer : C

Question. When was the Lukhnow agreement held ?
(A) 1906
(B) 1907
(C) 1916
(D) 1920

Answer : B

Question. Who started Home Rule Movement ?
(A) Tilak and Anibesant
(B) Gandhi
(C) Vipin Chandra Pal
(D) J.L. Nehru

Answer : A

Question. Where the Kuka movement took place ?
(A) Maharashta
(B) Bengal
(C) Punjab
(D) Delhi

Answer : C

Question. Ganesh Sawarkar was an -
(A) Moderate
(B) Extremist
(C) Revolutionary
(D) None of the above

Answer : A

Question. 'Hindustan Association of the Pacific Coast' was established by -
(A) Lala Hardayal
(B) Bhagat Singh
(C) Sohan Singh Makhna
(D) Savarkar

Answer : C

Question. 'Kamagatamaro' was the name of a -
(A) Place
(B) Human being
(C) Ship
(D) River

Answer : C

Question. In which year Muslim League was established?
(A) 1885
(D) 1916

Answer : C

Question. Which of the following event in 1905 inspired the Indian nationalists -
(A) Russian Revolution
(B) Japan's victory over Russia
(C) Abysenia's victory over Italy
(D) Japan's victory over China

Answer : B

Question. When was the 'Ghadar party' established ?
(A) 1905
(B) 1907
(C) 1913
(D) 1915

Answer : C

Question. Who was the first president of Ghadar party ?
(A) Hardayal
(B) Sohan Singh Makhna
(C) Sawarkar
(D) None of the above

Answer : A

Question. When was the Communal Electorate introduced in India ?
(A) 1961
(B) 1892
(C) 1909
(D) 1919

Answer : C

Question. In which year Lahore conspiracy took place ?
(A) 1905
(B) 1910
(C) 1915
(D) 1919

Answer : C

Question. Because of which conspiracy khudiram Bose was sentenced death penalty ?
(A) Meruth conspiracy
(B) Lahore conspiracy
(C) Kanpur conspiracy
(D) Alipure conspiracy

Answer : D

Question. Name the revolutionary who threw a bomb on Lord Harding -
(A) Savarkar
(B) Bhagat Singh
(C) Ras Bihari Boss
(D) Manmathnath

Answer : C

Question. When the capital was shifted from Calculate to Delhi ?
(A) 1910
(B) 1912
(C) 1915
(D 1920

Answer : B

Question. Name the revolutionary who was sentenced to death on the charges of murder of Curzon Vayli
(A) Savarkar
(B) Madanlal Dhingra
(C) Bhagat Singh
(D) Udham Singh

Answer : B

Question. In which year home rule league was established
(A) 1906
(B) 1912
(C) 1915
(D) 1919

Answer : B

Question. A.O. Hume was a retired -
(A) Military official
(B) Administrative officer
(C) Social reformer
(D) Politician

Answer : C

Question. Which extremist leader was sentenced for six years imprisonment in the year 1908 -
(A) Vipinchandra Pal
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai
(C) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(D) Arvind Ghosh

Answer : C

Question. Name the leader of the revolutionary party'Yugantar Dal'
(A) Bhupendra Dutt
(B) Ras Bihari Boss
(C) Jatindra Nath Mukherji
(D) Hardayal

Answer : C

Question. Name the editor of the paper 'Kesari'
(A) Vipin Chandra Pal
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai
(C) GangadharTilak
(D) Arvind Ghosh

Answer : C

Question. Ani Besant started two news paper, one was 'Common wilt' and the other one Was -
(A) Kesari
(B) New India
(C) Amrit Bazar Patrika
(D) India

Answer : B

Question. Who published the paper'Comrade'?
(A) Tilak
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai
(C) Hardayal
(D) MuhammedAli

Answer : D

Question. Under whose presidentship Muslim League was founded ?
(A) Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan
(B) Nawab Wakar-Ul-Mulk
(C) Salimullah
(D) None of the above

Answer : B

Question. Which bill is often termed as 'Black Bill'
(A) Illbert bill
(B) Rollet Act
(C) Education Bill
(D) None of the above

Answer : B

Question. Rowllet Act was passed in the year
(A) 1915
(B) 1917
(C) 1919
(D) 1921

Answer : C

Question. In which year 'Jailianwala Bagh' incident occured ?
(A) 1917
(C) 1921
(D) 1923

Answer : B

Question. Jallianwala Bagh is situated in
(A) Delhi
(B) Bombay
(C) Calcutta

Answer : D

Question. In which year the incident of Chauri Chaura occured
(A) 1921
(B) 1922
(C) 1923
(D) 1924

Answer : B

Question. In which district Chauri Chaura is situated ?
(A) Lukhnow
(B) Delhi
(C) Gorakhpur
(D) Basti

Answer : C

Question. In which year Swarajya Party was formed
(B) 1921
(C) 1922

Answer : D

Question. Name the founder of 'Swarajya Party'.
(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Tilak
(C) C.R. Das
(D) Jawahar Lal Nehru

Answer : C

Question. The aim of the 'Swarajya Party' was
(A) To help in the government work
(B) To obstruct government work
(C) To work for the government
(D) None of the above

Answer : B

Question. The first leader of the 'Swarajya Party' who accepted a government post war
(A) S.B. Tambe
(B) B. J. Patel
(C) Motilal Nehru
(D) C.R. Das

Answer : A

Question. In _____ year and at ________ session the moderates and the extremists were united.
(A) 1907, Sura
t (B) 1909, Lahore
(C) 1916, Lucknow
(D) 1911, Culcutta

Answer : B

Question. Which act provided separate electorates for the Muslims ?
(A) 1909 Act
(B) 1919 Act
(C) 1935 Act
(D) None of the above

Answer : A

Question. In which year the incident of Chauri-Chaura took place
(C) 1923
(D) 1924

Answer : B

Question. Who established the 'Swaraj Party' ?
(A) Gandhi
(B) Tilak
(C) C. R. Das?
(D) J. L. Nehru

Answer : C

Question. Which political Leader died after receiving lathi blows while opposing the Simon Commission ?
(A) Govind Ballabh Pant
(C) Bhagat Singh
(C) Lala Lajpat Rai
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Answer : C

Question. Name the president of the Congress Session held at Lahore which decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement.
(A) Mahatama Gandhi
(B) S.C. Bose
(C) J.L. Nehru
(D) M.L. Nehru

Answer : C

Question. In 1927 the _____ was formed, which focused the attention of the Indian people all over the country on the conditions prevailing in the states.
(A) The Communist Party of India
(B) Congress Socialist Party
(C) All India States People's Conference
(D) Socialist Party of India

Answer : C

Question. Who was the first leader chosen to go for Individual Satyagraha ha ?
(A) Mahatama
(B) J.L. Nehru
(C) S.C. Bose
(D) Vinoba Bhave

Answer : D

Question. In march 1942, _______ came to India to hold talks with the Indian leaders.
(A) Morley-Minto
(B) Montague-Chelmsford
(C) Cripps Mission
(D) Cabinet Mission

Answer : C

Question. The'Two nation theory' was given by
(A) M.A. Jinnah
(B) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan
(C) Abul KalamAzad
(D) Agha Khan

Answer : A

Question. Who gave the slogan of 'lnqlab Jindabad'
(A) Moderates
(B) Extremist
(C) Revolutionary
(D) None of the above

Answer : C

Question. Who established the 'Forward Block'?
(A) Bhagat Singh
(B) Ras Bihari Boss
(C) Chandra ShekharAzad
(D) Subhash Chandra Bose

Answer : B

Question. In which year Indian National Army was established ?
(A) 1940
(B) 1942
(C) 1944
(D) 1945

Answer : B

Question. The way of greeting among the Indian National Army was :
(A) Jai Hind
(B) Namaste
(C) Jai Bharat
(D) None of the above

Answer : A

Question. In which year the Navy revolted ?
(A) 1942
(B) 1944
(C) 1946
(D) 1947

Answer : C


Question. Define nationalism?
Ans. The feeling of oneness and unity among the people of a nation or patriotic feeling, principles and policy of national independence is termed as nationalism.

Question. What were the factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India?
Ans. The factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India were:

· Political associations came into being in the 1870s and 1880s:-
Most of these were led by English –educated professionals such as lawyers. The more important ones were the Poona Servajanik Sabha, the Indian association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha, the Bombay Presidency Association and the Indian National Congress.

· The dissatisfaction with British rule intensified in the 1870s and 1880s. They posted various laws which upset the people of India.
1.The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indian from possessing arms.
2.In the same year the Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed government to confiscate the assets of newspapers published anything that was found “objectionable”.
3.In 1883, there was a furor over the attempt by the government to introduce the Albert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But when white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians were enraged.

· The event highlighted the racial attitudes of the British in India.

Question. When was Indian National Congress formed?
Ans. The Indian National Congress was formed in December, 1885. 

Question. Mention the early leaders of Indian National Congress?
Ans. The early leadership:- Dadabhai Naroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddhin Tyabji, W.C. Bonnerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Nyer.

Question. Which British officer helped in the formation of Indian National Congress?
Ans. A retired British official, A.O. Hume helped in the formation of Indian National Congress.

Question. Why were the early years of the Indian National Congress referred to as the moderate phase?
· The Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in its objectives and methods.
· During this period it demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
· It wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where not existed.
· It demanded that Indian be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for civil service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
· The demand for Indianisation of the administration was part of a movement against racism, since most important jobs at the time were monopolished by white officials and the British generally assumed that Indian could not be given positions of responsibility.
· Other demands included the separation of the judiciary from the executive, the repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression.

Question. What were the economic issues that were raised by the Indian National Congress in its moderate phase?
Ans. The early Congress also raised a number of economic issues:-
· It declared that British rule had led to poverty and famines: increase in the land revenue had impoverished peasants and zamindars, and exports of grains to Europe had created food shortage.
· The Congress demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation.

Question. Why was Bengal partitioned?
· In 1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal. At that time Bengal was the biggest province of British India and included Bihar and parts of Orissa.
· The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience.
· “Administrative convenience” was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen.
· Even so, instead of removing the non –Bengali areas from the province the government separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam.
· Perhaps the main British motives were to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengali people.
· The wanted to divide Hindus from Muslims.

Question. What was the result of the partition of Bengal?
Ans. The partition of Bengal infuriated people all over India:
· All sections of the Congress – the Moderates and the Radicals, as they may be called - opposed it.
· Large public meetings and demonstrations were organised and novel methods of mass protest developed.
· The struggle that unfolded came to be known as the Swadeshi movement, strongest in Bengal but with echoes elsewhere too – in deltaic Andhra for instance, it was known as the Vandemataram Movement.

Question. What do you understand by the term – ‘Swadeshi Movement’?
Ans. The word ‘Swadeshi’ comes from two words – ‘ swa’ and ‘desh’ which means ones own country.
The Swadeshi Movement sought to appose British rule and in courage the ideas of self – help, Swadeshi enterprise, national education, and use of Indian languages.To fight for swaraj the radicals advocated mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods.

Question. Who were the revolutionaries?
Ans. The revolutionaries were a small group of people who suggested that the use of violence to make a radical change within the society would be necessary to overthrow British rule.

Question. When was the Muslim league formed and what were its demands?
Ans. A groups of Muslim landlords and Nawabs formed the All India Muslim league at Dacca in 1906.
The league supported the partition of Bengal.
· It desired separate electorates for Muslims, a demand conceded by the government in 1906.
Some seats in the councils were now reserved for Muslims who would be elected by Muslims voters.

Question. How did the Ist World War affect the economical condition of India?
Ans. The first World war altered the economic and political situation in India.
· It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure of the Government of India.
· The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
· Increased military expenditures and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.
· On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war.
· The war created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, and rails) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
So, Indian industries expanded during the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.

Question. What was Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Rowlatt Act was introduced by the British in 1919.
· According to this act, any Indian could be arrested without trial in the court of law.
· The act curbed fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers.

Question. Why did the nationalist leader oppose Rowlett Act?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi, Mohanmad Ali Jinnah and others felt that the government had no right to restrict people’s basic freedoms.They criticized the Act as “devilish” and tyrannical.

Question. What were the effects of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Ans. On learning about the massacre, Rabindranah Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country by renouncing his knighthood.
· During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united in the fight against British rule.

Question. When was Non –Cooperation & Khilafat Movement launched?
Ans. In 1920, NCM and Khilafat Movement were launched.

Question. What were the aims of NCM and Khilafat Movement?
Ans. The aims of NCM and Khilafat movement were:-
· They demanded for Swaraj.
· They wanted to reduce the ‘wrongs’ against Punjab and Turkey.

Question. What were the methods adopted in the Non – cooperation Movement?
Ans. The Non –cooperation Movement gained momentum through 1921 -22.
· Thousands of students left government –controlled schools and colleges.
· Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
· British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted.
· People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth.
· The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.
· Large parts of the country were on the brink of a formidable revolt.

Question. When and why was the Non –cooperation Movement withdrawn?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was against violent movements.
He abruptly called off the Non –Cooperation Movement when in February 1922 a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura.

Question. Mention the two demands of the Indian National Congress that it adopted in 1929?
Ans. The two demands of the Congress were:-
· The Congress resolving to fight for Purna Swaraj (complete independence) in 1929 under the president ship of Jawaharlal Nehru.
· Consequently “Independence Day” was observed on 26 January 1930 all over the country.

Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi organize a ‘dandi march’?
Ans. Purna Swaraj would never come on its own. It had to be fought for. In 1930, Gandhi declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law.According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.
The salt March related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody, and thus did not divide the rich and the poor.

Question. How did the British expand its army during the War period?
Ans. People in village were pressurized to supply soldiers for an alien cause.
· A large number of soldiers were sent overseas.
· Many returned after the war with an understanding of the ways in which imperialist powers were exploiting the people in Asia and Africa with a desire to oppose colonial rule in India.

Question. Who was Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans. Gandhiji, aged 46, arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa. Having led Indian in the country in non – violent marches against racist restrictions, he was already a respected leader, known internationally. His South Africa campaigns had brought him in contact with various types of Indians: Hindus,Muslims, Parsis and Christians, Gujaratis, Tamil and North – Indians and upper –class merchants, lawyers and workers.
Mahatma Gandhi spent his first year in India traveling throughout the country, understanding the people, their needs and the overall situation.

Question. Discuss the people’s response about the Non –Cooperation Movement in different parts of the country.
· In Gujarat Patidar peasants organised non- violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
· In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed. In the Gunur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee.
They were protesting because the colonial state had restricted their use of forest resources in various ways. They believed that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced and have the forest regulation abolished.In many forest villages, peasants proclaimed swaraj and believed that “Gandhi Raj” was about to be established.
· In Sind (now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasant were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.
· In Bengal too, the Khilafat – Non- cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
· In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants –supported by the British – from their gurudwaras.
· In Assam, tea garden labourers shouting “Gandhi Maharaj Ki Jai”, demanded a big increase in their wages. They left the British owned plantations amidst declarations that they were following Gandhiji’s wish.

Question. Mention the people who participated in the Dandi March and what was the British response towards this movement?
Ans. The people who participated in the Dandi March were:-
· Peasants, tribals and women participated in large number.
· The British response towards this movement was – the government tried to crush the movement through brutal action against peaceful satyagrahis. Thousands were sent to jail.

Question. What was the most important feature of the government of India act of 1935 introduced by British?
· Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937.
· Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces.

Question. What was the Congress demand after having won the elections?
· In September 1939, after two years of Congress rule in the provinces, the Second World War broke out.
· Critical of Hitler, Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort.
· But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war.
· The British refused to concede demand.
· The congress ministries resigned in protest.

Question. How did Gandhi organize Quit India Movement?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to initiate a new phase of movement against the British in the middle of the Second World War.
· The British must quit India immediately he told them. To the people he said “do or die” in your effort to fight the British – but you must fight non –violently.
· Gandhi and other leaders were jailed as the movement spread.
· It specially attracted peasants and the youth who gave up their studies to join it.
· Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country.
· In many areas people set up their own governments.

Question. How did the British try to control the Quit India Movement?
· The first response of the British was severe repression.
· By the end of 1943 over 90,000 people were arrested and around 1000 killed in police firing.
· In many areas orders were given to machine –gun crowds from airplanes. The rebellion, however, ultimately brought the Raj to its knees.

Question. What were the demands of the Muslim league in 1946?
Ans. In 1940 the Muslim league had moved a resolution demanding “Independent states” for Muslims in the north –western and eastern areas of the country.
· The resolution did not mention partition or Pakistan.
· From the late 1930s the league began viewing the Muslims as a separate “nation” from the Hindus.
· In developing this nation it may have been influenced by the history of tension between some Hindu and Muslim groups in the 1920s and 1930s.
· More importantly, the provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the league that Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.
· It feared that muslims may even go unrepresented.
· The Congress’s rejection of the league’s desire to form a joint congress – league government in the United Provinces in 1937 also annoyed the league.

Question. Why is the Indian National Congress (1919 – 1947) referred to as Gandhian Era?
Ans. From 1919 onwards Gandhi played a Major role in Indian National Movement as launched 3 great mass movements such as Non – cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement.Ultimately it was Gandhi who led the people of India towards independence in the year 1947.

Question. Write a short note on Jallianwala Bagh?
Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities inflicted by General Dyer in Ameritsar on Baisakhi Day (13 April), were a part of Rowlett Act repression. On learning about the massacre, Rabindranath Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country be renouncing his knight hood. During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united in the fight against the British rule.

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