CBSE Class 8 Social Science Socio Religous Reforms Movements Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Socio Religous Reforms Movements Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORMS MOVEMENTS

INTRODUCTION

*Social inequqlities have prevailed throughout the world, and the struggle against these inequqlities has also been a feature of history. Indian society suffered from certain social evils and the more prominent among these evils were related to women and the caste system. Between the two forms of inequalities, gender based inequality has been most common. With the dawn of the modern age, the attempts to eradicate inequalities acquired momentum. Many reformers emerged in almost each and every part of India and took up the cause of women, the downtrodden and the untouchables in particular. They struggled to bring about a change in the attitude of the people and in the policies of the government. They adopted political, educational and economic means. The reformers of the 19th century set the pace which is still going on.

SOCIO-CULTURAL AWAKENING

Causes :
*Conditions favouring intellectual growth and awakening grew from the political, economic, social and cultural impact of British domination and repression.
*Researches into India's past by Europeans as well as Indian scholars like Max Muller, Sir William Jones, Raja Rammohan Roy, Radhakanta Deva, Bhagwan Lal Indraji, RG. Bhandarkar, and M.G. Ranade led to its reinterpretation. What ensued was a cultural and spiritual rediscovery of India.
* Creative literature by scholars and writers such as Bankim Chandra, Keshav Chandra Sen, Madhusudan Dutt who combined the literary traditions of the past and the modern cultural developments awakened minds.
*The Christian missionaries often denounced the customs and beliefs of Hinduism. Indian intellectuals thus realised the need for socio-religious reform to purge the Indian society of its ills.

Nature :
The early reform movements laid emphasis on both social and religious transformation of society. The reason is not hard to seek. Social customs and traditions of India are generally closely linked to religious injunctions, arising from religious beliefs and traditions in many cases. Indian reformers understood this close interaction between the social and religious spheres of thoughts and activity. The 18th and 19th century reform movements display some major trends. Some of the reformers were of the view that reforms should be initiated from within the society. Among them were Rammohan Roy and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar . Some others believed in legislative intervention-that is, only state-supported reform movements could prove effective. With this concern in mind, the activities were undertaken by men like Keshab Chandra Sen, M.G.Ranade and others. The Young Bengal Movement represented reform initiated through symbols of transformation. It represented aradical trend in reform activity, without relying upon the cultural traditions of India for reform. Reform through social work was undertaken by many social reformers including Dayanand Saraswati and
Swami Vivekananda.

SOCIAL REFORM MOVEMENTS

The Brahmo Samaj :
1. Raja Rammohan Roy was called as the 'father of Modern India'.
2. He condemned idolatry and polytheism in religion. In 1809, he wrote Tuhfat-i-Muwahidin (Gift to Monotheists) .
3. In 1814, he founded the Aatmiya Sabha which became the Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
4. The Brahmo Samaj was founded on the principle of reason as found in the Vedas and Upanishads. It emphasised monotheism. Stressing on love for mankind and service to men. It opposed, ritual, superstition, sati and the caste system.5. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the champion of women's rights and always protected them. He advocated widow remarriage and education for women. It was largely due to his efforts that sati was declared a punishable offence when William Bentinck passed an Act against the same in December 1829.
6. Raja Rammohan established the Hindu college in Calcutta in 1817. He pleaded for an English-medium education system in India teaching western sciences and philosophies.
7. The Vedanta College formed in 1825, offered Indian as well as western learning. To initiate public opinion on political questions, he brought out the Samvad Kaumadi (1821), the first Indian newspaper managed and published by Indians, and a· Persian weekly, Miratul-Akbar.

Ramakrishna and Vivekananda :
* Ramakrishna Paramhansa (1834-86), was a simple rustic saint of Dakshineshwar in rural Bengal in the 19th century. He denounced the scriptures, rituals and priestly domination and emphasised on renunciation, meditation and bhakti, for salvation.
* Narendranath Dutta (1863-1902) his disciple, also known as Swami Vivekananda, popularised the saint's message and made it more socially relevant.
* Vivekananda's portrayal of Hinduism in his speech at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893, astounded the audience. The Hinduism preached by Vivekananda was called 'Neo-Hinduism'.
* In 1897, two centres were opened at Belur, near Calcutta, and Mayavati, near Almora, which became the focal points of his Ramakrishna Mission. The Mission worked to help the poor. To improve the social conditions for women, he reformed the education system and fought against the caste system and superstition.
*Vivekananda urged the youth of India to take inspiration from the Vedanta. His birth day is celebrated as Youth Day on 12th January.

Young Bengal Movement:
*Henry William Dorezio led The Young Bengal Movement on the basis of freedom, equality and truth. The followers of this cult were patriots. They advocated female education, equality of mankind, changes in the
Charter of East India Company, justice to Indian wage-earners and to stop the exploitation of Indian peasants.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820 - 91) :
* A well-known and active social reformer of the 19th century. He was a Sanskrit scholar. He struggled for securing women and their rights. He opposed caste evils and priestly domination in Hindu Society.
*In 1850, he protested against child marriage. In 1856, in Calcutta, he supervised the first lawful widow remarriage.

Keshab Chandra Sen (1838 - 84) :
* Keshab Chandra Sen was a great intellectual and a famous social reformer of the 19th century Bengal. He joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1857 as he was attracted to the Samaj's philosophies and activities.
*Women's education was one of his greatest concerns. The passing of Native Marriage Act of 1872, was the culmination of all his reform activities.

Begum Rokeya was a Women Reformer :-
*Begam Rokeya was born in 1880 in a village of Pairaband in the Bengal Presidency. In 1905 she wrote a short story Sultan's Dream. She also founded the Bengali Muslim Women's Association and was active in debates and conferences regarding the status of women and education until her death in 1932. Today in Bangladesh, December 9, (her death anniversary) is celebrated as Rokeya Day.

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